psychological tension or strain; state where a person wonders how he/she can cope with his/her environmental demands-can manifest by nausea, headache, pounding heart, anxiety, or muscle ache/tension
any attempt-successful or not-to cope with stress, balance personal needs against the demands of the environment, weigh desires against realistic possibilities, and to manage as well as we can
field that studies the biological model of stress and the ways in which psychological factors such as stress influence wellness and illness
a feeling that occurs when an individual feels forced to speed up, intensify, or shift direction in our behavior; compulsion to meet a higher standard of performance; often felt at places of employment
feeling when a person is prevented from reaching a goal; 5 common sources of frustration (Morris, 1990): delays (delay in time), lack of resources ("keeping up with the Jones"), losses (cause hopelessness or worthlessness), failure (depends on individual talent and effort), and discrimination (denial of opportunities); road rage is an example of increased frustration
a direct coping skill; one of the most common and effective methods of dealing with conflict and frustration; deciding on a more realistic solution or goal when the ideal solution or goal is not practical
a direct coping skill; avoiding a situation when other forms of coping are not practical; can be seen as a refusal to face problems or can be effective way to cope with stress
defense mechanism; refusing to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality; Example: Ray has terminal cancer but instead he believes he has bronchitis
defense mechanism; most common of defense mechanisms; pushing or excluding uncomfortable thoughts from consciousness; Example: Lisa, who was caught shoplifting when she was in high school, has no recollection of the event
developed by Sigmund Freud but enhanced by Anna Freud; self-deceptive techniques to reduce anxiety and guilt; can operate consciously or unconsciously; means of coping with stress
defense mechanism; attributing one's own repressed motives, feelings, or wishes; Example: Marilyn is unfairly passed over for a promotion; she denies that she is angry but is sure that her supervisor is angry with her
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
extension of Cannon's theory of the fight or flight response by Hans Seyle; reactions to physical/psychological stressors in 3 stages: alarm reaction (alert, increase emotions, increase physical reactions), resistance (coping techniques, physical symptoms), exhaustion (desperate attempt @ coping, "burn out")
most common of life's troubles; simultaneous existence of incompatible demands, opportunities, needs, or goals; Kurt Lewin, 1930s, describes conflict in terms of 2 opposing tendencies-approach and avoidance
one of Kurt Lewin's basic types of conflict; conflict dilemma where an individual is attracted to 2 appealing goals; the stress in this type of conflict is the fact that in choosing one desirable option, the individual must give up another desirable option
one of Kurt Lewin's basic types of conflict; conflict dilemma where an individual is attracted to 2 possibilities are undesirable or threatening and do not any positive features; people tend to "escape" the situation or choose the possibility which is the least worst or wait for the situation to resolve the conflict for the individual
one of Kurt Lewin's basic types of conflict; conflict dilemma where an individual is both attracted to and repelled by the same goal; the most common form of conflict; there is both good and bad about the goal; the tendency to avoid increases as an individual gets closer to the goal
a direct coping skill; acknowledging to oneself that there is a problem for which a solution must be found, attacking the problem head-on, and pushing resolutely towards one's goals; can include expressions of anger
defense mechanism; shifting repressed motives from one object to another object; Example: angry at this instructor's unreasonable request, Nelson yells at his mother instead of confronting his instructor.
defense mechanism; taking on characteristics of someone else to avoid feeling incompetent; Example: Anthony, uncertain of his own attractiveness, takes on this dress and mannerisms of a popular teacher.
defense mechanism; reverting to childlike behavior and defenses; Example: Angry because his plan to reorganize his division has been rejected, Bob throws a tantrum.
defense mechanism; thinking abstractly about stressful problems as a way of detaching oneself from them; Example: After learning that she has not been asked to a classmate's costume party, Tina coolly discusses how social cliques control school life.
defense mechanism; expression of exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of one's repressed beliefs or feelings; Example: At work, Michael loudly states that he would never take advantage of a rival, though his behavior indicates the opposite.
defense mechanism; redirecting repressed motives and feelings into a more socially accepted channel; Example: Hitting a punching bag instead of hitting the person who made you angry.
new field; studies the interaction between stress and immune, endocrine, and nervous system activity; the extent that stress disrupts the functioning of the immune system, it can impair health.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
psychological disorder; characterized by episodes of anxiety, sleeplessness, and nightmares resulting from some disturbing event in the past (typically a trauma); victims of abuse, soldiers, refugees