Organizational Communication

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Metamorphosis

Occurs when the new employee has made the transition from outsider to insider

Anticipatory Socialization

Refers to socialization processes that occur before an individual actually enters an organization

Encounter

Occurs when a new employee enters the organization. The newcomer must adapt to the organization

Overt question

Newcomer solicits information by asking direct questions of information targets

Indirect questions

Newcomers solicits information by asking noninterrogative questions or by hinting

Third parties

Newcomer solicits information by asking a secondary source (e.g., coworker) rather than a primary source (e.g., supervisor)

Testing limits

Newcomer solicits info by breaking or deviating from organizational rules and observing reactions

Disguising conversations

Newcomer solicits info by disguising the info-seeking attempt as a natural part of the convo

Observing

Newcomer solicits info by watching behavior in salient situations

Surveillance

Newcomer solicits info by making sense of past behavior

Illusion of invulnerability

The belief that nothing can go wrong within the group

Illusion of morality

The self-righteous belief that the virtues of the group are above reproach

Stereotyping

The categorizing of others outside of the group in ways that see their views as unacceptable

Self-censorship

The overt restraint of the group members against offering opinions counter to the prevailing thought in the group

Illusion of unanimity

The statement of group agreement while private doubts and disagreement while private doubts and disagreements are suppresses

Direct pressure on dissidents

The coercive force that obliges group members to behave and think in similar ways

Reliance on self-appointed mind guards

The protection of the group from contrary information from outside influences

Structure

Paradoxes involving how organizational democracy is planned, designed, and formalized

Agency

Paradoxes concerning an individual's sense of responsibility, autonomy, and cooperation within the participative system

Identity

Paradoxes concerning issues of inclusion, boundaries, and interests within the participative system

Power

Paradoxes concerning how control and leadership are exercised within the participatory system

Latent conflict

Grounds for conflict exists because parties are interacting in interdependent relationships in which incompatible goals are possible

Percieved conflict

One or more parties perceive that their situation is characterized by incompatibility and interdependence

Felt conflict

Parties begin to personalize perceived conflict by focusing on the conflict issue and planning conflict management strategies

Manifest conflict

Conflict is enacted through communication. Interaction might involve cycles of escalation and de-escalation as various strategies are uses

Conflict aftermath

Conflict episode has both short-term and long-term effects on the individuals, their relationship, and the organization

Inquisitor

Third party exercises control over both the process and the outcome of conflict resolution

Judge

Third party exercises control over the outcome but not the process of conflict or resolution

Mediatior/advisor

Third party counsels parties who maintain control over both the process and the outcome

Motivator

Third party uses threats and incentives to encourage resolution of the conflict

Investigator

Third party ferrets out facts of dispute and presents them to relevant authority

Restructurer

Third party uses authority to redesign the organization in a way that will resolve the conflict

Problem solver

Third party attempts to discover underlying conditions that have led to the conflict

Procedural marshal

Third party describes and enforces rules for conflict resolution

Globalization

Makes the world a global markedplace by connecting the whole world as transportation and telecommunication systems improve.

Outsourcing

Businesses move manufacturing and service centers to countries where labor is cheap

Multinational/international presence

Employees of a single organization are found in many locations worldwide

Machine metaphor

Suggests that we can learn something about organizations by considering a disparate object that an organization "is like"

Fayols theory of classical management

Effective organizations are highly structured, and each individual knows where he or she fits. Clear structures facilitate the functioning of the organziation and clear rules deal with these structures. Prescriptive rather than descriptive

Webers theory of Bureaucracy

Proposed that a bureaucracy is a closed system driven by rational-legal authority. Within the system, there is a strict reliance centralized. Results in a highly impersonal organization where individuality is discouraged. No hatred or passion.

Components of Scientific management

One best way to do every job, importance of a proper fit beteween worker and job / proper selection of worker for the job, importance of training workers(motion studies), inherent difference between management and workers

Hawthorne studies

Mayo and his research team were initially interested in how changes in work enviornment would impact the productivity of factory workers

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs theory

Physiological, safety, affiliation, esteem, self actualization

Theory X

Representative of a manager influenced by the most negative aspects of classical management theories.

Theory Y

Manager who adheres to the precepts of the human relation movement

Components of the leadership grid

Impverished management, Country club management, authority-compliance, team management, middle of the road management

Imverished management

low concner for people and low concern for production

Country club management

high concern for people, low concern for prod

Authority-compliance

high concern for production, low concern for people

Team management

high concern for both people and prod

Middle-of-the-road management

balanced concern for people and production

Informal communication

Less emphasis on titles than formal communication

Likert System I, Exploitive authoriative organization

Characterized by motivation through threats and fear

Likert System II, Benevolent authoritative organization

Characterized by motivation through economic and ego rewards

Likert System III, Consultative organization

Decisions made at the top and control rests primarily at the upper level of the hierarchy. Before decisions are made employees are consulted and their opinions are taking into consideration

Likert System IV, Parcitipative organization

Decions making is performed by every organizational member and goals are set by complete work groups.

Direction of Communication Flow

Interaction that flows horizontally among employees is just as important as downward communication in the accomplishment of organizational goals.

Conflict

The interaction of interdependent people who percieve oppostition of goals, aims, and values, and who see the other party as potentially interfering with the realization of these goals

Affectice conflict

Emotional disagreements focused on personal incompatibility

Spray and Sell

Management showers employees with all kinds of information in the hope that employees will be ablte to sort out significant and insignificant information.

Tell and Sell

Managements selects a limited set of messages regarding core organizational issues. Managmenent "tells" employees about these issues, and then "sells" employees on the wisdom of the chosen approach

Identify and Reply

Management listens to and identifies key concerns of emplyees and then responds to those issues as they are brought up

Withhold and Uphold

Management withholds information as much as possible. When management is confronted with questions or rumors, they uphold the party line

Problem-focused coping

Involves dealing directly with the causes of burnout

Appraisal-focused coping

Involves changing the way one thinks about the stressful situation

Emotion-centered coping

Involves dealing with the negative affective outcomes of burnout

Acculturation

Modes by which two groups adapt to each other and resolve cultural difference

Structural integration

Cultural profiles of organization members, including hiring, job placement, and job status profiles

Informal intergration

Inclusion of minority-culture members in informal networks and acitvites outside of normal working hours

Cultural bias

Prejudice and discrimination

Organizational indentification

Feelings of belonging, loyalty, and commitment to the organization

Intergroup conflict

Friction, tension, and power struggles between cultural groups

Challenges of the diverse organization

Avoiding Negative Impacts of diversity management programs, sexual harrasment,balancing work and home, managing (and celebrating) cultural diversity

Four areas of work distribution

Central office, telework, flextime, the virtual organization

Central office

When work is accomplished by people in the same time and the same place

Telework

When work is accomplished at the same time in a different place

Flextime

When work is done at the same place and different time

The virtual organization

Created thrugh tecnhology that has no brick-and-mortar presence at all. Accomplished at different times and different places through the use of multiple information and computer technologies

Theories of communication media usage

The media richness model,The social information processing model, The dual-capacity model

Domestic organization

An organization that identifies with a single country and predominant culture

Multicultural organization

An organization that identifies predominantly with one country, but recognizes the needs of a culturally diverse workforce and diverse contacts outside the company

Multinationalo organization

An organization that identifies with one nationality while doing business across several or many nations. Management recognizes the needs of a multinational workforce, customer base, and institutional environment

International organization

An organization that identifies with two or more countries with distinct cultural qualities. Distinct national interest are assumed to exist within the companys management, clients, customers, and institutional environment

Gloabal organization

An organization that indentifies with the global system rather than any particular nation. In a global workplace, organizational membership takes precedence over national allegiances

Cybernetic system theory

Deals with the process through which physical, natural, and organizational systems are steered toward reaching system goals. The system goal is target for a particular aspect of system operation

Weick's theory of organizing

This model seeks to illuminate the process of organizing, and draws on a variety of theories in developing his perspective

Network analysis

When the components of systems are people and social groups, the mapping of relationships among people becomes crucially important.

Network roles

Define the ways in which individuals are connected with each other

Organizations primary goal as defined by Weick

Reduction of equivocality in the information environment

Components of Deal and Kennedy's "strong cultures"

Values, Heroes, Rites and rituals, Cultural network

Peter and Waterman's themes

A bias for action, close relations to the customer, autonomy and entrepeneurship, productivity through people, hands-on, value driven, stick to the knitting, simple form, lean staff, simultaneuos loose-tight properties

Cultural performances

Interactional and requires participation of multiple organizational members

Ideology

Structures our thoughts and controls our interpretations of reality

Holism

Systems have this property because of the interdependent nature of their components and the information that flows through the process of feedback and exchange

Equifinality

A system can reach the same final state from differing initial conditions and by a variety of paths

Negative Entropy

The tendency of closed systems to run down

Requisite Variety

A final system property deals with the relationship between a system and its environment

Van Maanens tales

A realistic tale, a confessional tale, an impressionist tale

Frames of reference

Unitary, pluralist, radical

Theory of concertive control

Control, identification, dicipline

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