Lesson 1: The Cell

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1. _______ are the smallest units of life.
a. Protons c. Molecules
b. Cells d. Proteins

b. Cells

2. Which one of the following lists shows the correct order of biological organization?
a. Ecosystem, population, community, biosphere
b. Community, population, biosphere, ecosystem
c. Population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
d. Biosphere, community, population, ecosystem

c. Population, community, ecosystem, biosphere

3. Organisms that depend on food energy stored in other living organisms are called
a. protists. c. composers
b. producers. d. consumers.

d. consumers.

4. The processes in organisms by which internal conditions—like temperature and acidity—are
kept about the same is called
a. homeostasis. c. metabolism.
b. photosynthesis. d. nutrition.

a. homeostasis.

5. The life-domain whose members live in very harsh environments, such as salt lakes and
hot springs, is called
a. Fungi. c. Archaea.
b. Eubacteria. d. Protista

c. Archaea.

6. During a scientific experiment, the control group is
a. identical to the experimental group.
b. not aware of the experiment taking place.
c. different from the experimental group in all respects.
d. identical to the experimental group in all areas except the variable being tested.

d. identical to the experimental group in all areas except the variable being tested.

1. The subatomic particle that carries a positive electrical charge is the
a. electron. c. isotope.
b. proton. d. neutron.

b. proton.

2. When an atom has two or more outer electron shells, the outer shell will be most stable if it
contains eight electrons. This concept is called the
a. valence rule. c. octet rule.
b. rule of eight. d. isotope rule.

c. octet rule.

3. When two oxygen atoms join together, a _______ is formed.
a. mixture c. compound
b. shell model d. molecule

d. molecule

4. The type of bond in which atoms share electrons to produce a stable outer shell is a/an
_______ bond.
a. ionic c. colloquial
b. covalent d. isotonic

b. covalent

5. The polarity of water molecules causes them to be attracted to one another in what's called a
_______ bond.
a. covalent c. hydrogen
b. polarized d. hydrophilic

c. hydrogen

6. As the number of hydrogen ions in a solution increases, the pH of the solution
a. decreases. c. increases.
b. stabilizes. d. neutralizes.

a. decreases

1. Among living things, the most common among the polysaccharide structural carbohydrates is
a. starch. c. keratin.
b. glycogen. d. cellulose.

d. cellulose.

2. Which one of the following functional groups is associated with fatty acids?
a. Phosphate c. Carboxyl
b. Amino d. Hydroxyl

c. Carboxyl

3. The hard body parts of insects and crabs are composed of a polysaccharide called
a. cellulose. c. glycogen.
b. chitin. d. glucose.

b. chitin.

4. Cell membranes are composed mainly of which type of lipids?
a. Phospholipids c. Steroids
b. Waxes d. Glycerides

a. Phospholipids

5. Proteins whose polypeptide chains are folded into rounded compact shapes are
a. fibrous. c. helical.
b. pleated. d. globular.

d. globular.

6. When joined by a dehydration reaction, the covalent bond between the carboxyl groups of two
amino acids is called a _______ bond.
a. peptide c. hydrogen
b. carboxyl d. hydroxy

a. peptide

7. The sugar in RNA is
a. deoxyribose. c. glucose.
b. ribose. d. sucrose.

b. ribose

1. Within cells, the synthesis of proteins occurs in
a. the nuclear envelope. c. chromatin.
b. ribosomes. d. nucleolus.

...

2. What is the main function of the mitochondria?
a. Assembling polypeptide chains c. Producing ATP
b. Digesting substances d. Moving internal structures

...

3. The _______ keep(s) the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells separate from the DNA.
a. Golgi body c. chromosomes
b. ribosomes d. nuclear envelope

...

4. Vesicles that participate in cell apoptosis—programmed cell death—are called
a. peroxisomes. c. ribosomes.
b. lysosomes. d. vacuoles.

...

5. The _______ are sometimes called the "powerhouses" of the cell.
a. ER c. chloroplasts
b. mitochondria d. nuclei

...

6. The cell-to-cell junctions that allow cells to communicate are called _______ junctions.
a. gap c. matrix
b. adhesion d. tight
(

...

1. In a/an _______ reaction, one reaction releases energy and the second uses energy.
a. paired c. coupled
b. energetic d. diverted

...

2. Which of the following is not a feature of enzymes?
a. They drive reactions only in a forward direction.
b. They can bind to many substrates.
c. Metabolic reactions destroy the enzyme molecules.
d. They speed up reaction time.

...

3. The term entropy refers to
a. the absorption of heat.
b. the relative amount of disorganization in a system.
c. an open system.
d. the first law of thermodynamics

...

4. The term phagocytosis refers to a type of
a. vesicle. c. endocytosis.
b. exocytosis. d. passive transport.

...

5. The movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher
concentration of water molecules to an area of lesser concentration is
a. active transport. c. endocytosis.
b. osmosis. d. diffusion.

...

6. _______ energy is the ability or capacity to do work.
a. Kinetic c. Thermal
b. Chemical d. Potential

...

1. In the electron pathway for light reactions in photosynthesis, PS II involves
a. splitting water. c. producing coenzymes.
b. the production of NADPH. d. the production of ATP.

...

2. In plants that absorb blue-violet-green wavelengths of light, what color do they reflect?
a. White-yellow c. Yellow-orange
b. Blue d. Green

...

3. _______ is an example of a CAM plant.
a. Corn c. Sugarcane
b. Pineapple d. Crabgrass

...

4. The final step of the Calvin cycle is the regeneration of
a. ATP. c. RuBP.
b. electrons. d. G3P.

...

5. Atmospheric carbon dioxide enters leaves through
a. stroma. c. thylakoids.
b. grana. d. stomata.

...

1. The largest energy yield during aerobic respiration occurs after which stage?
a. Pyruvate cycle c. Krebs cycle
b. Electron transport chain cycle d. Glycolysis

...

2. A molecule of glucose contains
a. 12 carbon atoms, 6 oxygen atoms, and 6 hydrogen atoms.
b. 6 carbon atoms, 6 hydrogen atoms, and 12 oxygen atoms.
c. 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms, and 6 oxygen atoms.
d. 8 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms, and 6 oxygen atoms.

...

3. What process results in 2 ATP and a toxic end product?
a. Fermentation c. Preparatory reaction
b. Citric acid cycle d. Energy harvesting

...

4. Besides carbon dioxide, the other end product of cellular respiration is
a. oxygen. c. lactate.
b. water. d. nitrogen.

...

5. In cellular respiration, the number of ATP molecules produced is as many as 38, which is
about 40% of the energy available from a glucose molecule. The remainder of the energy
is lost as
a. water. c. heat.
b. pyruvate d. carbon dioxide.

...

1. The structure that surrounds the cytoplasm in a bacterial cell
is the
A. nucleoid. C. plasma membrane.
B. ribsosome. D. cell wall.

...

2. Which one of the following oils contains the largest amount
of saturated fat?
A. Canola C. Olive oil
B. Safflower D. Coconut oil

...

3. The following atoms are all variations of the element carbon:
12C, 13C, and 14C due to differing numbers of neutrons. What
are these variations called?
A. Isomers C. Molecules
B. Isotopes D. Polymers

...

4. Any energy transformation involves the loss of some energy as
A. heat. C. light.
B. electric charge. D. motion.

...

5. Petunias belong to the kingdom
A. Animalia. C. Plantae.
B. Fungi. D. Protista

...

6. Which one of these occurs during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
A. Carbon dioxide fixation C. NADPH production
B. G3P production D. Reduction of carbon dioxide

...

7. In a eukaryotic cell, protein synthesis occurs in the
A. nuclear envelope. C. chromosomes.
B. ribosomes. D. smooth endoplasmic reticulum

...

8. The two major sets of reactions involved in photosynthesis are
A. light reactions and Calvin cycle reactions.
B. glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.
C. Calvin cycle reactions and citric acid cycles.
D. light reactions and the electron transport chain.

...

9. As an enzyme fits into a substrate at the active site, it undergoes a slight change in
order to fit into the substrate. This process is defined by a concept called the
A. active enzyme inhibition scheme. C. feedback inhibition model.
B. induced fit model. D. facilitated diffusion process

...

10. An important property of water is that
A. it's a good solvent.
B. its temperature rises and falls quickly.
C. it easily changes from liquid to gas.
D. it lacks cohesive properties.

...

11. Which of these statements most accurately describes how carbon dioxide enters a leaf?
A. CO2 is carried by water in leaf veins.
B. CO2 enters a leaf through osmosis.
C. CO2 is pulled in by leaf veins.
D. CO2
defuses by way of the stomata.

...

12. A helix refers to a protein's _______ structure.
A. tertiary C. quaternary
B. primary D. secondary

...

13. Select the largest, most inclusive biological level among the following choices.
A. Cell C. Tissue
B. Organ D. Molecule

...

14. What happens as a result of fermentation?
A. Glycolysis only
B. Glycolysis and the reduction of pyruvate
C. Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
D. The reduction of pyruvate only

...

15. In the enzymatically controlled chemical reaction A à B + C, the letter A stands for a
A. substrate. C. cofactor.
B. enzyme. D. product.

...

16. Which one of the following molecules is a product of cellular respiration?
A. Water C. Glucose
B. Pyruvate D. Oxygen

...

17. Which of these is the smallest structure?
A. Dipeptide C. Polypeptide
B. Amino acid D. Protein

...

18. Which of the following is true about bases?
A. They tend to decrease the pH of a solution.
B. They release hydroxide ions in solution.
C. They have a sharp or sour taste.
D. They help to build up cells.

...

19. Which one of the following reactions occurs in the cristae of the mitochondria?
A. The citric acid cycle C. The electron transport chain
B. The prep reaction D. Glycolysis

...

20. An insect is able to walk across the surface of a pond without sinking because of the
A. polarity of the water molecules.
B. process of evaporation.
C. cohesion between the water molecules.
D. adhesion of the insect's feet to the surface of the water

...

21. A grassy meadow that's home to rabbits, deer, and several species of birds is considered as a/an
A. population. C. biosphere.
B. community. D. ecosystem

...

22. Which one of the following is an example of a monosaccharide?
A. Sucrose C. Starch
B. Glucose D. Cellulose

...

23. An element has an atomic number of 11 and an atomic weight of 23. How many
neutrons does each atom contain?
A. 11 C. 23
B. 12 D. 24

...

24. The Calvin cycle of photosynthesis begins when
A. carbon dioxide is attached to RuBP.
B. light becomes available.
C. electrons leave a photosystem.
D. the reduction of carbon dioxide occurs.

...

25. If you immerse a living cell in a hypertonic solution, water will
A. move into the cell. C. move out of the cell.
B. remain constant. D. fluctuate in and out.

...

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