a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
a political orientation that favors progress and reform
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
A country who's population share a common identity.
Present day territory that includes Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, and the former Yugoslavia. Revolutions sparked by nationalism began here: Greece (1821), WWI (1914)
Greece won independence from Turks in 1830, Both Serbia and Greece were being helped by Russia, and Russia shared Slavic language and Christian Orthodoxy with two territories
revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed. (p. 595)
Emperor of France, general in the Franco-Prussian war
the second empire in France
empire ruled by Louis-Napoleon
a war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia
Czar Alexander II
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)
organized persecution of an ethnic group (especially Jews)
Policy imposing Russian customs and traditions on other people.
Count Camillo di Cavour
Prime minister of Sardinia (northern Italy) who vowed to drive out the Austrians and worked towards a united Italy.
Region in Northern Italy ruled by King Victor Emmanuel
King Victor Emmanuel
first king of unified italy, appointed by cavour
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)
the Red Shirts
Giuseppe Garibaldi's army always wore red during battle; fighter's for independence. They fought together as one, nationalistic feelings.
the German Confederation
he association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to serve as the successor to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, which had been abolished in 1806.
German state which led the unification movement and was the most powerful portion of the newly-created Germany.
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)
politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations
Noble class in Prussia
Seven Weeks' War
aka Austro-Prussian War (1866) This war resulted from Bismarck wanting to isolate Austria from German affairs
the Franco-Prussian War
war between France and Prussia. Prussia won and captured Alsace-Lorraine. This unified a previously divided Germany because they had a common enemy in France.
Alsace and Lorraine
Border regions of France with German speaking peoples; Bismark annexed them following Franco-Prussian war.
King of Prussia and Emperor of Germany whose political policies led his country into World War I. He was forced from power when Germany lost the war
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism
policy based on the idea that government should play as a role
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
socialist who wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx in 1848 (1820-1895)
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded
The Communist Manifesto
The book written by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that outlined how every society in the world would eventually reach communism.
the working class
an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer
stop work in order to press demands
Factory Act Of 1833, Ten Hours Act Of 1847, Child Labor, Womens Reform
the reform bill of 1832
the piece of legislation that gave the vote to many members of the middle class in great britain
British Queen, under whose rule the British empire reached the height of its wealth and power, forced to accept a new, virtually powerless role after the Chartist movement
Leads movement to win women's vote (suffrage) through militant (radical, sometimes violent) means