The king of Belgium; He obtained the Congo and exploited it brutally under a humanitarian pretense; Once this brutality was revealed he relinquished the control to Belgium
Signed at the Berlin conference in 1885. Protected free trade, banned slavery, protected the welfare of the native people.
important to all imperialists of Africa, these were two of the things that drove the Scramble.
The killing of more than 500,000 ethnic Tutsis by rival Hutu militias in Rwanda in 1994. The conflict between the dominant Tutsis and the majority Hutus had gone on for centuries, but the suddenness and savagery of the massacres caught the United Nations off-guard. U.N. peacekeepers did not enter the country until after much of the damage had been done.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
The World War I alliance between Germany, Italy (at first), Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
a type of warfare in which huge trenches are built which are faught out of and lived in.
The majority tribe in Rwanda. Interhamwe were Hutus who targeted Tutsis and moderate Hutus.
Minority tribe in Rwanda. Had lost control of the Rwandan government and were the primary target of the genocide.
English shipping clerk who found invoices with large quanities of guns going to africa. He exposed to the atrocites of africa to the public.
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s to gain land and valuable resources to expand their empires.
The alliance between the great powers of Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War One.
A series of proposals in which US president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving everlasting peace after World War One.
The freedom of a people to decide under what form of government they wish to live.
A conflict during which the countries involved devote all of their resources to the war effort.
The nations of Great Britain, France, and Russia, as well as other nations that fought on their side, during World War One.
The region of northern France where Allied and Central power forces fought during World War One.
Russia's parliament, first created by Czar Nicolas II.
Local councils in Russia formed by revolutionaries and made up of workers peasants, and soldiers. Usually had more influence than the provisional government.
Chinese statesman who organized the Kuomintang and led the revolution that overthrew the Qing Dynasty. Was the first president of the "new" China.
Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jieshi)
Leader of the Nationalist Party after Sun died in 1925. Garnered many nationalist, businessmen supporters who eventually overthrew the communists. First President of the Nationalist Republic of China
The belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation--that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history--rather than to a king or empire.
People who support communism--the belief that all means of production should be owned by the people and that private property should not exist.
May Fourth Movement
Demonstrations that broke out on May 4, 1919 when people found out that they had been ignored by capitalist countries in the Treaty of Versailles. IN CHINA
Kulak (or kuloch)
Wealthy peasant farmers in the Soviet Union.
A political movement that promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights and a dictatorial one-party rule.
"Lightning war." A form of warfare employed by Hitler in which surprise attacks using fast aircraft were followed by massive infantry invasions so as to quickly overwhelm the enemy.
The declaration of principles issued in August 1941 by Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt on which the Allied peace plan at the end of World War II was based.
"Night of Broken Glass." The night of November 9, 1936 when Nazis attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues throughout Germany.
June 6, 1944. The day on which the Allied forces began their invasion of the European mainland in WWII.
A series of court proceedings held by the Allies in Nuremberg after WWII in which 22 Nazi leaders were put on trial, 12 of whom were sentenced to death.
Battle of Stalingrad
A 1942-43 battle in WWII in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union.
The Hawaiian naval port attacked by the Japanese on December 7, 1941 which sparked US involvement in WWII in the Pacific.
Battle of Midway
A 1942 sea and air battle in WWII, in which American forces defeated Japanese forces in the central Pacific.
During the Cold War, the boundary separating the Communist nations of eastern Europe from the primarily democratic nations of the west.
A US policy of granting economic and military support to free nations that felt threatened by internal or external communist forces, announced by then president Harry Truman.
The state of diplomatic hostility (and occasional "hot spots" of tension) between the United States and the Soviet Union in the decades following WWII.
The military alliance between the Soviet Union and seven eastern European nations formed in 1955.
The shooting down of a US spy plane in Soviet territory and the capture of its pilot by the Soviets in 1960.
Ho Chi Minh
A Vietnamese nationalist who turned to the Communists for support. Eventually led communist North Vietnam and supported the spread of communism in the south.
Communist guerrillas in southern Vietnam who were aided by North Vietnam as they took over the south.
The line along which Vietnam was divided in the Geneva Accords. The north was to be ruled by Ho Chi Minh and the south by a government put in place by the US and France.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
A resolution passed by congress on August 7, 1964 which granted President Johnson broad military powers in Vietnam.
A policy of reducing Cold War tension that was adopted by the United Sates during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
named so because of their location in the middle of Europe; the alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary
Treaty of Versailles
a compromise between the major Aliies (US, France, G.B.) and Germany. It was signed 6/28/1919. it called for a League of Nations and punished Germany
League of Nations
an international association whose goal it would be to keep peace among nations, so another world war would not happen
an agreement to stop fighting, in this case signed by Marshal Foch and a German representative (because the Kaiser had stepped down). Signed 11/11/1918
the plan that General Alfred Graf Von Schlieffen (Germany) created that the German army would first have an easy victory in France and then an easy victory in Russia
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
the policy that Germans created that they would torpedo any passing boat with their U-Boats
an aspect of total war in which governments decide that people can only buy so-much of something so that there is enough for the war effort
Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, and VIttorio Orlando
a totalitarian dictator who executed millions in the great purge and his 5-year plans attempted to get the economy back.
The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
in czarist Russia, attacks on jews carried out by government troops or officials
later known as the "red army"- a revolutionary group that wanted to overthrow the government and install communism
led by Gandhi, a march to the Indian coast, in which participants gathered water and evaporated it to make salt. a symbol of Indian Independence
a creeeper, he seemed to heal Czarina Alexandra's son, so she let him govern while Nicholas was away
the leader of the communist party in China
The Chinese Nationalist Party, formed after the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912. Included the Communists between 1923 and 1930.
a nonviolent protest in which people are deliberately not obeying a rule that the people believe to be unfair.
founded fascism and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator. He dreamed of building Italy into a great empire, but he led his nation to defeat in World War II (1939-1945) during which he was allied with Hitler
an agreement between 2 or more nations in which they agree not to attack each other
Prime Minister of Great Britain during WWII- he was held as a great ruler by the Britons
commander of Allied forces in the Pacific-a brilliant military strategist who wanted to "island-hop" past Japanese strongholds
a systematic killing of an entire ethnic group or people
Japanese suicide pilots trained to sink Allied ships by crashing bomb-filled planes into them
a reduction in a country's ability to wage war, achieved by disbanding its armed forces and prohibiting it from aquiring weapons
Douglas MacArthur's plan to seize islands in the Pacific in order to get past Japanese strongholds
The Nazi plan for ridding Europe of it's Jewish population
city neighborhoods- in Holocaust reference, meaning compounds where European Jews were forced to live
an international organization intended to keep a third world war from happening, and devoted to keeping its members safe from aggression
a policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and stopping the expansion of communism
a plan created by the Secretary of State George Marshall that proposed to give aid to any European nation needing aid after the devastation of WWII
North Atlantic Treaty Organization- a military alliance made between the US and other countries
the willingness of countries to be on the brink of war- that if an attack occured there would be immediate retaliation
the line that divided Korea into North and South Korea. The north was communist and the south was not.
Ngo Dinh Diem
the non-communist leader of South Vietnam- chosen by the US by greatly disliked by the South Vietnamese
The North Vietnam army group led by Ho Chi Minh
Because Berlin was in eastern germany, the Soviet's put a blockade on Berlin and so flights from west Germany dropped supplies onto Berlin every minute
SALT I and II
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks- part of the detente in which the US and the USSR set a certain number of ICBMs in any given nation. SALT I was successful, but the US refused to ratify SALT II