any text (written, spoken, aural, or visual) that expresses a point of view; the use of evidence and reason to discover a version of the truth
aimed at encouraging others to collaborate in exploring mutually satisfying ways to solve problems, rather than vanquishing opponents
an approach to argumentation based on the principle that audiences respond best when they do not feel threatened; stresses trust and urges those who disagree to find common ground
Purposes of Argument
to inform, convince, persuade, explore, make decisions, and/or meditate and pray
Arguments to Explore
urges an audience to seek further information and analysis for understanding an idea, issue or problem
Arguments to Make Decisions
closely linked with exploratory arguments, the goal is consider various alternatives to make good, sound choices
Arguments to Meditate/Pray
the writer or speaker uses intense messages or themes hoping to reach a peace of mind or transform something in himself/herself, as well as the audience
art of persuasion (many schemes used to study and understand the use of persuasive language in Western culture come from the Greek philosopher, Aristotle)
an occasion for argument relying on evidence, testimony, and precedents of the past
an occasion for argument that deals with what will or should happen in the future
an occasion for argument set in the present, often dealing with contemporary values (widely-held beliefs or assumptions debated in a society) to offer praise or blame
in classical rhetoric, a method for coming up with appropriate arguments by determining the nature of the given situation (arguments of fact, definition, evaluation, and proposal)
Arguments of Fact
an argument where the claim can be proved or disproved with specific evidence or testimony; within stasis theory: Did something happen?
Arguments of Definition
an argument in which the claim specifies that something does or does not meet the conditions or features set forth in a representation; within stasis theory: What is the nature of the thing?
Arguments of Evaluation
presents criteria and then measures people, ideas, actions, or things against those standards; within stasis theory: What is the quality or cause of the thing?
an argument in which a claim is made in favor of or opposing a specific course of action: within stasis theory: What actions should be taken?
the actual, real-life people a writer or speaker consciously wants to to address when making an argument
the audience directly addressed or implied in an argument's text, which may include some people that the writer/speaker did not intend to reach
Aristotle's Rhetorical Appeals
the use of ethos (credibility), pathos (emotion), and logos (logic) to achieve specific purposes when making arguments
based on Greek mythology, calls for seeking the most suitable time and place for making an argument and the most opportune ways of making an argument