The most significant factor that led large numbers of nomadic hunters to enter the heart of North America was ________.
The people who occupied the valley of Mexico when the Spanish arrived were the ________.
What Indians desired most, upon encountering Europeans, was ________.
At the time of Columbus's first voyage in 1492, ________.
most educated Europeans knew the world was round
The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 resulted in ________.
Portuguese control of what would become Brazil
In order to better control the conquistadors in the New World, the Spanish government created ________.
The first French explorers were ________.
interested in finding the mythical northwest passage to China
What sixteenth-century European upheaval had a profound impact upon England's settlement of the New World?
The mission of the Spanish Armada was to ________.
defeat Queen Elizabeth I and make England a Catholic country
What was the most important result of the domestication of maize (corn), beans, and squash by some Native American groups?
moving from nomadism to a settled lifestyle
By the time Europeans arrived, the Aztecs had all of the following EXCEPT ________.
tools and weapons made of iron and bronze
What was the main result of the deadly diseases brought to the New World by Europeans?
an extremely high mortality rate among the natives, destroying the culture of many tribes
Why was America named after Amerigo Vespucci?
Vespucci published a falsified travel account that convinced mapmakers that he had been the first European to reach the continent.
How did the Historia de las Indias change the colonization of the New World?
It led Spain to improve its treatment of Indians under their rule.
Why was England initially reluctant to establish an empire in the Americas?
Colonization threatened the English alliance with Spain.
What was the key difference between the English and Spanish colonial systems?
The English efforts were private, and the Spanish colonies were supported by the Crown.
English settlers in seventeenth-century America could best be characterized in terms of their ________.
striking social diversity
The founding of Pennsylvania was tied to the ________.
Joint-stock companies allowed for _______.
In which colony were religious reasons least important in its founding?
Jamestown's prosperity was ensured by ________.
Under the headright system in Virginia, ________.
50 acres were granted for each new settler, free or indentured
The document in which the Pilgrims established a civil government for their Plymouth colony has become known as the ________.
The Puritans of Massachusetts Bay believed that the best way to reform the Church of England was to ________.
remain in the Church and reform it from the inside
Which of these was true of the relationship between political events in England and English colonization in North America?
Events in England impacted the direction of colonization repeatedly.
Those who migrated to the Chesapeake Bay area as indentured servants were ________.
normally single males in their teens or early twenties
How did Roger Williams' religious ideas clash with those of the Puritans?
Williams felt that it was not enough to purify the Church of England from within, but to separate from it.
Why was William Penn's Frame of Government remarkable for its time?
It included more personal liberties than other English colonies.
Why did the new colonists of Georgia demand slaves?
The colonists believed that they could compete economically with South Carolina only if they were allowed to have slaves.
The lives of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson provide strong evidence that ________.
Massachusetts Bay faced difficulties in creating a society based on a religious principle
The character of the first English settlements in the New World ________.
differed substantially from colony to colony from the very beginning of colonization
The most important reason for the difference between the New England and Chesapeake colonies was based on ________.
the much higher mortality rate of the Chesapeake colonies
In which colony were African Americans most able to preserve their African identity?
The most serious slave rebellion of the colonial period was ________.
the Stono Uprising
British authorities based their colonial commercial policies on the theory of ________.
The Navigation Acts established the principle that ________.
the British colonies' only trading partner was England
One of the major causes of ________ was the disfranchisement of landless freemen by the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1670.
Why did colonial lawmakers create strict slave codes in the late 1600s?
Lawmakers feared an uprising because the African population had increased greatly
Which statement is a key assumption of mercantilism?
One nation's success in commerce is another nation's loss.
Which statement about Bacon's Rebellion is FALSE?
Bacon led a rebellion to prevent Governor Berkeley from waging a war against the Susquehannock Indians
The two most important leaders of the Great Awakening in colonial America were ________.
Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield
Which was NOT a territorial change under the Peace of Paris (1763), which ended the Seven Years' War?
Spain gained Guadeloupe and Martinique in the Caribbean
Which best summarizes the basic philosophy of the Enlightenment?
Reason could help humans achieve perfection in this world.
Which of the following was NOT an important effect of the Great Awakening?
It strengthened the authority of old colonial religions.
One of the most important factors uniting Americans of different colonies into a single political culture was ________.
the English common law
Which was NOT a consequence of the Seven Years' War?
The war led to the creation of several new French colonies.
What did the Great Awakening, intercolonial trade, and the rise of the colonial assemblies have in common?
They contributed to a growing sense of shared identity.
Which statement is the best interpretation of this sentence from page 108 in the 4th edition or 141 in the 5th (last page of Chapter 4)? "For them, "American" was a way of saying "not quite English."
The British regarded colonists not as English—as the colonists viewed themselves—but as something a little different.
The central issue in the Anglo-American debate over governance was ________.
Which prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains?
Proclamation of 1763
The Stamp Act of 1765 affected ________.
ordinary people, as well as the elite
Which of the following stated Parliament's belief in its own sovereignty?
The fundamental issue leading to the Boston Massacre in 1770 was the ________.
presence of so many British troops in Boston
The Tea Act of 1773 was passed in order to ________.
save the East India Company
The American victory that led to the French alliance occurred at ________.
Which was central to the colonists' position in the Anglo-American debate over parliamentary powers?
their strong belief in the powers of their own provincial assemblies
What was the most important responsibility facing the Second Continental Congress?
to organize the colonies for war
What was the significance of Thomas Paine's Common Sense?
Widening popular support for revolution
American Loyalists, who sided with the British during the War for Independence, ________.
came from all occupations and social classes
What was the significance of the Treaty of Paris of 1783?
It allowed Americans the opportunity to form an independent nation.
For Americans in the 1780s, they had formed a real republic by eliminating ________.
the monarchy and aristocracy
________ caused the most important changes in voting patterns in the immediate post-war years.
How many states did not have to draft new constitutions, since they already had republican governments as part of their colonial charters?
Most new state constitutions after the American Revolution ________.
included Declaration on Rights
The Articles of Confederation ________.
jealously guarded state sovereignty at the expense of national power
The most important accomplishment of Congress under the Articles of Confederation was its ________.
passage of ordinances organizing the Northwest Territory
The Northwest Ordinance ________.
defined the process by which a territory became a state
The most important result of the Annapolis Meeting of 1786 was ________.
the nationalists' recommendation to Congress for a convention to revise the Articles of Confederation
Shays's Rebellion involved ________.
discontented farmers in Massachusetts
The three-fifths rule concerned the issue of ________.
whether or not to count slaves as part of the population
How did the debate between public morality and private freedom inform political debate in the 1780s?
Americans defended individual rights but believed that a society without virtue couldn't preserve liberty and independence.
n the 1780s, why did Americans disagree sharply over the relative importance of liberty and order?
After perceived British tyranny Americans valued liberty but recognized the importance of order.
How was slavery an obvious contradiction to the principles of the American republic?
Americans claimed to be fighting for freedom, but still enslaved others.
How did Shays's Rebellion help advance Madison's plans for reform?
People throughout the United States realized that law and order were breaking down.
Why did those who campaigned actively for ratification of the Constitution call themselves Federalists?
The term suggested that they stood for a confederation of states and not for a supreme national authority.
How does the modern Bill of Rights compare to that of 1789?
The modern one allows for freedoms despite ethnicity, race, gender, or sexual orientation—provisions that were not made in 1789.
How did disagreements between Federalists and Antifederalists reflect the political climate of the 1780s and predict the climate of the 1800s?
The disagreement showed how the country was divided and would be divided for the next several decades on state, federal, and individual rights
The Judiciary Act of 1789 ________.
set up a Supreme Court with one chief justice and five associate justices
According to the Kentucky Resolutions, ________.
states had the right to nullify federal law under certain circumstances
Opposition to Hamilton's proposed national bank ________.
involved issues relating to Congress's constitutional powers
How did the XYZ Affair affect U.S. politics?
Adams and Jefferson reached a political impasse.
Why did the Sedition Act distress many Americans?
It threatened their political right to disagree with and speak out against the government.
In what sense was the election of 1800 a peaceful revolution?
Although politicians passionately disagreed about who should be president, a new president was elected peacefully, in spite of electoral glitches.
How does the financial-political climate of the late eighteenth century compare to today's climate?
The political and financial climates of both times can be characterized as strife-filled, interdependent on each other, and heavily influenced by foreign affairs.
Why did Washington view the Whiskey Rebellion as treason?
He thought French agents had supported the protest.
Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa ________.
worked to persuade the Indians of the Indiana Territory to hold onto their tribal cultures and their land
What difficulty did Jefferson face in purchasing the Louisiana Territory?
the constitutionality of his actions
Chief Justice John Marshall believed in judicial review, which is ________.
the power of the courts to determine the constitutionality of legislation
Why were regional identities formed in the U.S. in the early nineteenth century?
People wanted to defend local economic interests, it was difficult to travel far, and there were distinct regional subcultures
How does the Marbury v. Madison case influence legislature today?
It established precedence for the Supreme Court to judge the constitutionality of congressional acts.
Why was the 1807 federal slavery law unsatisfying for everyone?
On the one hand, slave owners felt it threatened their livelihood, but on the other hand, abolitionists felt it did little to end slavery.
How was the War of 1812 both a success and a failure for Americans?
The U.S. felt confirmed as a strong nation, yet it did not receive maritime rights or guarantees that Britain would end impressment
The Adams-Onís Treaty ________.
made Florida a U.S. territory
By the mid-1820s, the Cherokee had each of the following EXCEPT ________.
a military force capable of defending their lands against white encroachment
The most spectacular engineering achievement of the young United States was the ________.
The great showplace for early American industrialization was ________.
Industrialization transformed women's work by ________.
changing where women worked
Which of the following was NOT an aspect of the Missouri Compromise of 1820?
Missouri was admitted as a slave state on the condition that slavery be phased out over a period of time.
McCulloch v. Maryland involved questions regarding ________.
the national bank
According to the decision of Gibbons v. Ogden, which of these would regulate interstate commerce?
The foreign policy initiative calling for an end to all European colonization efforts in the Western Hemisphere was known as the ________.
What does it mean that some Americans believed the U.S. had continental destiny?
It meant that some Americans believed that the U.S. should expand from the East coast to the West coast, controlling all the lands in between.
How did transportation affect industry and agriculture in the early nineteenth century?
Improved land and water transportation allowed the U.S. to develop more industry and create a cash crop agricultural system.
Why did the Monroe Doctrine make little impression on European powers?
They didn't see the U.S. as a significant enough military power to feel threatened about their support of Latin American independence.
Henry Clay's American system envisioned _________.
a strong federal role in the economy
The most obvious indicator of the supremacy of democracy in the United States was the ________.
development of universal white manhood suffrage
Andrew Jackson's attitude toward Native Americans was that they should be ________.
removed to areas beyond white expansion
The Trail of Tears refers to ________.
the forced relocation of the Cherokees to Oklahoma
The nullification crisis of the early 1830s ________.
was an early indication of dangerous future divisions
The major significance of Jackson's national bank veto message was that it ________.
was the first veto not based solely on a bill's constitutionality
How did hotels symbolize the American spirit in the 1820s-1840s?
Hotels reflected the cultural changes—particularly the blurring of class distinctions—that accompanied the extension of the franchise in the period.
In what ways was American democracy an illusion in the 1820s-1840s?
Not only were women and African and Native Americans excluded, but economic inequality was growing.
How was Jackson's Force Bill of 1833 connected with slavery?
South Carolina equated the extension of federal power with a threat to the institution of slavery.
To what was French historian Alexis de Tocqueville referring when he wrote, it is possible to foresee that the freer the whites in America are
The more rights and liberties whites obtain, the less willing they are to share those rights with others such as African or Native Americans.
Slave marriages tended to last longer on ________.
Slave religion was typically ________.
a version of Christianity shaped by African traditions
The typical way for most slaves to express discontent was ________.
At the time of the Civil War, ________.
one-quarter of white Southerners owned slaves
Most southern whites ________.
were nonslaveholding yeoman farmers
What was one goal of the American Colonization Society?
White Southerners became more committed to quashing antislavery ideas.
The Brer Rabbit stories ________.
showed how a defenseless animal could overcome a stronger one through cunning and deceit, a metaphor for survival as a slave
Which statement best describes a major disadvantage of the southern economy?
The focus on a single industry that was profitable only to a small minority prevented industrial and commercial growth.
What was considered the proper sphere for middle-class white women in the nineteenth century?
keeping house and raising a family
What was considered to be the most important function of the school in the mid-nineteenth century?
The radical abolitionist and cofounder of the American Anti-slavery Society was ________.
William Lloyd Garrison
What significant event occurred in 1848, at Seneca Falls, New York?
the first national gathering of feminists
As a result of revivalism, northern evangelicals were involved with each of the following EXCEPT ________.
The reality behind the Cult of Domesticity was ________.
a growing division between the workplace and the home
How did working-class urban whites generally feel about the abolitionist movement?
They resisted abolitionism because they did not want to compete socially and economically with African Americans.
One of the important ideas behind the concept of Manifest Destiny was ________.
Which of the following did not result from the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
Slavery would not be allowed west of the Rio Grande.
What was the significance of the invention of the John Deere steel plow?
It allowed farmers to cultivate tough prairie soils.
In the most extreme form of Manifest Destiny, what land would the United States ultimately occupy?
the land that is occupied today by the United States, Mexico, and Canada
What finally led Mexico to break off diplomatic relations with the United States and prepare for armed conflict?
The United States annexed Texas and claimed the land between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande
Why did the Mexican-American War ultimately divide the American public and provoke political dissension?
Many Northerners feared the spread of slavery to the newly acquired territories.
Which of the following characterizes the experience of German immigrants?
They suffered less prejudice than the Irish.
Which of the following resulted from the growth of the working class in the 1830s and 1840s?
an upsurge of labor militancy
In 1856, which antislavery Senator was almost beaten to death on the floor of the U.S. Senate by Representative Preston Brooks?
In the first House vote on the Wilmot Proviso, party lines crumbled and the vote split ________.
along sectional lines
The founding of which party was the first significant effort to create a broadly based sectional party addressing itself to voters' concerns about the extension of slavery?
Which of the following was true about the Compromise of 1850?
It temporarily restored sectional peace.
In 1854, Stephen Douglas proposed a bill that would set up territorial governments in Kansas and Nebraska on the basis of ________.
Which political party wanted to extend the period of naturalization in order to weaken immigrant voter strength?
Which was the intended message of southern literature during the 1840s and 1850s?
Genteel southern civilization was superior to greedy northern culture.
What action took place after proslavery adherents raided Lawrence, the free-state capital of Kansas, in 1856?
John Brown and his followers killed five proslavery settlers in cold blood.
Harriet Beecher Stowe published her abolitionist novel ______ in 1852, and it was enormously successful.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
What issue brought the case of Dred Scott v. Sanford to the Supreme Court?
A slave sued on the grounds that he had lived in a free state and so he should be a free man
What were the different stands Democrats and Whigs took on annexation and slavery in new territories?
Democrats endorsed expansion and both free and slave states, while Whigs opposed annexation to avoid the slavery debate.
In the Dred Scott v. Sanford decision, which of the following was the one thing the Supreme Court did NOT rule?
The Democratic platform was unconstitutional.
The first shots of the Civil War were fired at ________.
Which was most common in determining whether a state supported the North or the South in the Civil War?
views on whether or not states had the right to secede from the Union
In 1861, Lincoln declared martial law and suspended the _________ in the area between Philadelphia and Washington.
Writ of habeas corpus
One of the bloodiest battles of the war was ________, which took place on September 17, 1862.
The Emancipation Proclamation freed ________.
only slaves in the Confederate-controlled areas
Which best describes the South's goal in seceding from the Union?
to recreate the Union as it had been before the Republican Party
In the beginning, the Civil War was a ________.
Struggle to preserve the Union
Why did northern sentiment to free the slaves increase as the war dragged on?
People recognized that emancipation could be used as a weapon against the South's economic and social systems
What caused the New York riot of July 1863?
a combination of racial prejudice and opposition to the draft
Which statement best characterizes Sherman's march through Georgia?
Sherman destroyed almost anything of military or economic value in his path
How did the role of government change as a result of the Civil War?
The federal government became recognized as supreme over state governments.
The term Reconstruction refers to the _______.
period immediately following the Civil War
As early as 1863, Lincoln proposed a plan for restoring southern state governments if _______ percent of the 1860 voting population took a loyalty oath to the Union.
Which of the following required 50 percent of southern voters to take an oath of loyalty to the Union before the southern states could regain their status as states?
President Andrew Johnson was NOT a(n) _______.
Supporter of African American rights
Which one of the following Constituional Amendments abolished slavery?
Congressional Republicans believed that Reconstruction should _______.
treat the South as a conquered nation
The first bill ever passed over a presidential veto was the _______.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Which of the following constitutional amendments attempted to ensure the civil rights of former slaves?
The Reconstruction Acts ________.
were actually a retreat from true radicalism
What amendment to the Constitution states that no person could be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude?
The organization that symbolized most vividly the white backlash of the Reconstruction era was _______.
What was the main implication behind Black Codes?
Southerners wanted African Americans to return to positions of servitude.
Why were some American women angered by the Fifteenth Amendment?
It gave voting rights to African-American men, but not to any women.
How did African Americans end up paying the heaviest price for the sectional reunion after Reconstruction?
Although African Americans saw signs of equal rights at the start of Reconstruction, once it ended many of these rights were not enforced.