1929-Oparin's; Inorganic Matter (ammonia, methane, hydrogen gas, water vapor) -> Energy (thermal energy, UV radiation, lightining) -> Organic Matter (amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotides) -> CELLS. The first cells fed off the "primordial soup" and thus were HETEROTROPHS; from simple inorganic molecules tyhey made organic ones: was a chemical change, required alot of energy (thermal; from volcanoes.)
(ammonia, methane, hydrogen gas, water vapor)
(amino acida, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotides)
according to the heterotroph hypothesis, an aggregate of large proteinlike molecules; thought to have developed into the first forms of life on the primitive earth, made of lipids, amino acids, and sugars
the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species)
Lamarckian Evolutionary Theory
"use and disuse:" inheritence of "aquired characteristics," adaptations arise from the use/disuse of certain body parts, over time a "habit" becomes a fixed and inherited trait, theory of aquired characteristics, based on reason not experimental findings, structures not used would weaken and disappear beacause of DISUSE and the body parts they do USE would become more important and stronger, the AQUIRED TRAITS would be passed on to future generations,
Darwinian Evolutionary Theory
"survival of the fittest:" 1)individuals vary genetically 2)organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support 3) population size is limited bedcause of limiting factors; food availability, space, water availability, disease resistence, predators 4) the environment is constantly changing; struggle for existence, competition for resources, certain members of a populations posess traits that increase their survivability: adaptations 5) b/c of these limiting factors in a changing environment populations are constantly in a "struggle for existence" 6) individuals with FAVORABLE variations are more likely to survive and reproduce; this is the heart of his theory by NATURAL SELECTION, nature does the selection 7) good adaptations "selected" by nature eventually spread theough the population with the result that it has changed or EVOLVED.
overall: organisms that posess adaptations which increase their survivability in their own certain environment will live and reproduce offspring with those traits; "survival of the fittest"
a change or alteration in form or qualities; results in variation, "raw material" for evolution b/c it creates new variations while meiosis only shuffles genes.
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
group of similar organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring
consists of all genes, including all the different alleles, that are present in a population
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Principle
If these conditions are contained, the population won't evolve; 1) the population is very large, 2) there is no loss or gain of alleles due to migration 3) there is no loss or gain of alleles due to mutations 4) there is no preference for mates having particular traits: random mating 5) each train gives an individual an equal chance to survive and reproduce. If all of these conditions are met then the population is a non-evolving population. If a populations gene pool does not change then every subseuent generation is gonna give you a 49(BB) : 42(Bb) : 7 (bb) ratio b/c the porbability of interiting a dominant trait is 7/10 and the probability of inheriting a recessive trait is 3/10.
separation of populations as a result of geographic change or migration to geographically isolated places, affects gene pool which becomes limited.
movement of animals from one environment to another, results in carrying new genes into a population and loss of genes from the population they left
the development of a species, forces operating to produce new species: isolation, migration, change in environment, mutation, natural selection. (ex. mule deer and elk)
the pattern in which organisms with DEFFERNT ancestors become more alike in their adaptations because they share similar environments (ex. bat and bird and insect wings)
also called adaptive raditation, process by which different species develop from a COMMON ANSESTOR
similarities among unrelated species that result from convergent evolution (process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments)
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
The comparison of body structures and how they vary among species
embryos of vertebrates are remarkably similar during embryonic development
hemoglibin is remarkably close to edoraphil in plants
remains of plants and animals that no longer exist, helps us to reconstruct environment andthe organisms features
Evolution of Humans
evolved from primates,
Binocular Color Vision
walking on 2 legs
Trends in Human Evolution
Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
Carolus Linnaeus's Classification Sytstem
1735-Carolus Linnaeus developed a way to classify organisms, Order: kingdom (very general characterictics,) phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
graduate of harold univ. and decided to test the heterotroph hypothesis. created a simulation based on oparin's hypothetical experiment. had a condensor flask (representing the primordia sea) that would evaporate, would condense in the flask (creating something similar to the primordial atmosphere) and had a candle for thermal energy; let it run for three days and founf amino acids, carbs, lipids, nucleotides, and ATP. this demonstrated the plausibility of oparins hypothetical experiment.
Repeated Miller's experiment testing Oparin's hypothesis but altered heat and salinity; produced proteinoids (artificail proteins) which formed with lipids into biospheres (cell like structures) which acted like cells: grew, divided, performed simple reactions.
cell like structures that act like cells: grow, divide, perform simple reactions.
a change in response to environment, some characteristic that increases the survivability of an organism in a specific habit: could be behavioral, chemical, or structural. organisms adapt to keep up with changes; if they fail they die out, therefor they need to increase their skillzzzz
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
How do species come into being? Why?
natural selection changes features and genes, adaptations occour, isolation, EVOLUTION,
1) food availability 2) space 3) water availability 4)disease resistence 5) predators
Human's Carolus Linnaeus Classification
Anamalia (kingdom,) chordata (phylum,) vertebrata (subphylum,) mammalia (class,) hominidae (family,) homo (genus,) sapians (species) therefor called: homosapians