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A less severe form of fetal alcohol syndrome is known by all of the following terms except

C) fetal sub development syndrome

What is WIC?

D) a food and nutrition services program for pregnant women, children, and infants

What is the denefit of postpartum amenorrhea?

B) it conserves iron in the mother

Which of the following describes and infant born during the 43rd week of pregnancy?

C) post term

In obese pregnant women, the risk for neural tube defects in the infant is believed to result from

B) poor glycemic control

The most comon forms of neural tube defects are spina bifida and

B) anencephaly

Which of the following has a favorable influence on fertility?

D) choosing diets providing protein from vegtable sources

Why might a lactating woman need to take an iron supplement?

C) to replace the iron stores she lost during pregnancy

All of the following are features of zinc in nutrition in pregnancy except

B) supplements are effective in preenting neural tube defects

Which of the following is a feature of heavy metal intake and pregnancy?

B) the adverse effects of lead can be reduced by liberal intakes of calcium

A positive relationship exists between sudden infant death syndrome and which of the following behaviors during pregnancy?

C) cigarette smoking

All of the following statements are specific to the critical periods of cell division except?

C) high-nutrient-density food fed after the critical period can remedy a growth deficit

For the normal-weight woman who becomes pregnant, what is the ideal weekly weight gain from the start of the second trimester and onward?

A) 1 lb

All of the following are features of nonfood cravings during pregnancy except

D) they are known to lead to premature delivery and to low-birth-weight infants

Which of the following is a characteristic of maternal smoking and breast milk production?

A) the milk produced by mothers who smoke contains nicotine

Which of the following is a feature of lactation?

D) breast milk quantity but not quality is most affected by nutritional inadequacies

Which of the following is not a dietary recommendation for children?

B) children with high blood cholesterol should be treated first with statin drugs

According to the american academy of pediatrics and the Canadian Pediatric Society, breastfeeding of full-term infants is

D) strongly recommended

Which of the following is a common source of lead poisoning in infants?

C) contaminated water used to make infant formula

What is the chief reason that breast-fed infants usually need to eat more frequently than formula-fed infants?

B) breast milk is digested faster

Infants showing symptoms of acidosis, dehydration, diarrhea, elevated blood ammonia and urea, and fever may be reacting to the nutritional problem

A) protein overload

All of the following features of breast milk composition except

C) the concentration of protein is slightly high than for cow's milk

All of the following are features of snacking in children except

A) snacking should be prevented

An adverse reaction to food that does not signal the body to form antibodies is termed a

B) food intolerance

What should be the parent's response when a one-year-old child wants to clumsily spoon-feed himself?

C) let the child try to feed himself so that he will learn

All of the following are features of the iron RDA for adolescents except

D) the frequency of iron deficiency is similar amon males and females of the same age

Roberta's first child is now 8 months old. Roberta has been breastfeeding and would like to begin to introduce solids foods. She read somewhere to introduce one food at a time to the infant. Which of the following would be the best choice for the first food to introduce to the baby?

B)Rice

People who show adverse reactions to foods such as increased pulse rate, nausea, and hives, but do not show antibodies to the offending foods, are displaying

A) food intolerances

Which of the following is a characteristic of fat in the diet of children?

D) fat intakes below 30% of total energy do not impair growth provided that total energy intake is adequate

All of the following are characteristics of hyperactivity in children except?

B) excessive amounts of sugar may cause or aggravate hyperactivity

Approximately what fraction of an average teenager's daily energy intake is derived from snacks?

A) 1/4

Which of the following is not known to be an advantage of breast feeding?

D) breastfed infants born prematurely grow more slowly than formula-fed infants born prematurely

What is the chief protein in human breast milk?

D) alpha-lactalbumin

All of the following are characteristics of vitamin B12 nutrition in older people except

D) the DRI committee recommends that older people increase their meat intake to provide adequate vitamin B12

What is the fastest-growing age group in the United States?

D) over 85 years

Which of the following is thought to promote the development of brain senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles?

A) oxidative stress

Which of the following foods seems to benefit rheumatoid arthritis in some people?

B) olive oil

Approximately how many years is the maximum human life span?

D)130

A person with dysphagia has

C) difficulty swallowing

All of the following are features of arthritis except

C) weight-bearing exercises often aggravate the pain from osteoarthritis

Factors known to be related to the appearance of Alzheimer's disease include all fo teh following except

D) a decrease in homocysteine synthesis

All of the following are characteristics of age-related macular degeneration except

D) therapy includes elimination of purine-containing foods

A principal reason that congregate meals are preferable to Meals on Wheels is that

B) there are more social benefits to congregate meals

All of the following are features of the Meals on Wheels program except

C) it provides the same social benefits as congregate meals

What are the known consequences of taking a single two-tablet does of aspirin?

B) it doubles the bleeding time of wounds

Approximately what percentage decline in total energy expenditures is seen in a 70 year old versus a 30 year old?

C) 20

Which of the following describes the nutrient needs of older people?

A) they vary according to individual histories

Among the elderly, malnutrition is most common in those living

A) in nursing homes

What nutrients appear to be protective of cataract formation?

D) vitamin C and vitamin E

Which of the following is a recent finding on vitamin D nutrition in the elderly?

B) the skin's capacity to synthesize the vitamin is reduced

Which of the following is not a feature of children born with alcohol-related complications?

D) all children born with these complications show marked outward signs

What is the minimum recommended weight gain for the obese pregnant woman?

A) 11 lbs

All of the following are features of preeclampsia except

D) high blood pressure

What is the recommended range of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for and underweight woman?

B) 28-40

Which of the following is one recommendations to treat pregnancy-associated heartburn?

A) eat many small meals

Which of the following is a characteristic of alcohol intake and lactation?

A) alcohol easily enters breast milk

The amount of vitamin D recommended in pregnancy can be obtained by consumption of fortified milk and

B) exposure to the sun

The component of weight gain during pregnancy that is similar to the average weight of the infant at birth is the

C) maternal fat stores

Since repeated pregnancies occurring within short time frames lead to depletion of the mother's nutrient reserves, what is the optimal interval between pregnancies?

C)1-2 years

What is the recommended rage of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for normal-weight woman?

C) 25-35

What What is the approximate length of the fetus at 11 weeks of development?

A) 1 inch

Risks from malnutrition in women or men before conception include all of the following except

A) it usually results in macrosomia

What is the most likely reason for a pregnant woman to crave pickles?

A) a change in hormones

Which of the following statements describes a relationship between alcohol intake and fetal development?

A) birth defects are most severs when the woman drinks around the time of conception

Which of the following is a characteristic of vegetarian diets during pregnancy of lactation?

C) it is possible that a vegetarian diet can support a healthy pregnancy and normal lactation

Breast milk as the sole source of nutrition, up to the first 6 months in healthy infants, is satisfactory for all nutrients except

B) vitamin D

An infant diagnosed with "goat's milk anemia" is most likely deficient in

B) folate

Which of the following practices is not among the recommendations to help children develop an interest in vegetables?

D) serve vegetables with the promise that after they are eaten, dessert will follow

All of the following are characteristics of breastfeeding frequency and duration except

D) more infrequent and short duration feedings are preferable to stimulate lactation and breast-filling

What are the odds that an overweight 18 year old with only one obese parent will become and obese adult?

D) 4 in 5

What is the prevalence of hyperactivity in children?

A) 5-10%

All of the following are characteristics in the development of atherosclerosis except

B) once plaque if formed, it can be contained but cannot regress

What is the most likely explanation for the increased prevalence of obesity in children over the past 30 years?

D) they are less active physically

Why is it recommend that overweight children not following a low-kcalorie diet?

D) diet restriction can interfere with growth and development

What is the term given to the child who is hyperactive with sever and impulsive behavior?

D) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

A local high school has just added milk to the vending machine. Parents were very supportive of this change; however, not all the students believe this is useful. You have a few minutes to speak to the student body, and your talk should

C) point out that milk is a good source of calcium, which is required for teens during peak bone growth

A life-threatening whole-body allergic reaction is known as

A) anaphlactic shock

All of the following are characteristics of vegetarian diets and infancy except

C) rice milk may substitute for other beverages from the age of 12 months and on

Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in the elderly?

B) calcium intakes are well below recommendation

What a congregate meal?

A) a meal provided for the elderly in a place such as a community center

What is the fraction of the U.S. population is at least 65 years old?

C) 1/8

Studies of adults show that longevity is related, in part, to all of the following except

C) short periods of sleep

A condition that increases the likelihood of iron deficiency in older people is

D) poor iron absorption due to reduced stomach acid secretion and/or use of antacids

All of the following are features of osteoarthritis except

B) nicotine intake reduces inflammation and increases flexibility

Approximately what percentage of a person's life expectancy is dependent upon personal behavior?

D) 75

What is the most important predictor of a person's mobility in the later years?

D) regular physical activity

What is the minimum number of glasses of water per day recommended for older adults?

B) 6

What is the life expectancy of black males and females in the United States?

A) 70-77 years

All of the following are features of the Meals on Wheels program except

C) is provides the same social benefits as congregate meals

All of the following are characteristics of aspirin use except

A) it acts as a pro-clotting agent

What organ functions to prepare the mother's breasts for lactation?

C) placenta

Which of the following increases the risk of masrosomia?

B) prepregnancy obesity

A newborn infant at full gestational age has an average length of

C) 20 inches

To maintain physical fitness during pregnancy, all of the following activities are considered acceptable except

A) saunas

Which of the following is a characteristic of calcium nutrition in pregnancy?

B) the AI for calcium is the same as in nonpregnancy

In pregnancy, a large weight gain over a short period is evidence of

A) edema

A craving for non-food substances is known as

A) pica

Approximately what percentage of newly pregnant women develop gestational diabetes?

D) 4

According to many experts, what minimum level of alcohol intake increases the risk of giving birth to an infant with fetal alcohol syndrome?

A) 1 drink/day

Which of the following is a function of prolactin?

D) it acts on mammary glands to promote milk production

Which of the following statements characterizes every needs during pregnancy?

D) carbohydrates should supply a minimum of 135 g and ideally 175 g per day

Over the course of the entire pregnancy, approximately how much extra energy, in kcal, does the average pregnant woman need to consume?

D) 72,000

What factor in breast milk binds iron and prevents it from supporting the growth of the infant's intestinal bacteria?

B) lactoferrin

Which of the following is associated with energy metabolism of the preschool child?

D) a 1-year-old who needs 800 kcal/day would require only about 1600 kcal at 6 years of age

For optimal breast-feeding benefits, it is recommended that the infant be encouraged to suckle on each breast for about

C) 10-15 minutes

Which of the following feeding practices is recommended for preterm infants?

C) they should be fed preterm breast milk, occasionally fortified with specific nutrients

What is the typical weight gain (lbs) of and infant between the first and second year of life?

B) 10

What is the leading cause of high blood pressure in children?

A) obesity

Which of the following is a characteristic of hunger and behavior in children?

C) children who eat nutritious breakfasts are absent from school less often that their friends who do not

All of the following are features of iron nutrition in children except

C) the brain appears to be less sensitive to iron deficiency than the rest of the body

Which of the following two conditions are associated with television's influence?

A) obesity and high blood lipids

A cigarette smoker who is planning to quit should expect a weight gain in the first year of about

C) 10 lbs

Which of the following is not among the recommended methods for introducing new foods to children?

D) present new foods at the end of a meal

What term defines the condition of infant tooth deterioration resulting from chronic exposure to carbohydrate-rich fluids from a bottle?

D) nursing bottle tooth decay

Roberta's first child is now 8 months old. Roberta has been breastfeeding and would like to begin to introduce solids foods. She read somewhere to introduce one food at a time to the infant. Which of the following would be the best choice for the first food to introduce to the baby?

B) rice

Which of the following is an effective strategy for dealing with obesity in a child?

C) engage the individual in at least 1 hour per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity

What two nutrients are known to interfere significantly with the utilization of the antibiotic tetracycline?

A) iron and calcium

All of the following are characteristics of gout except

D) it promotes formation of neurofibrillary tangles

Which of the following drugs has a chemical structure similar to folate?

D) methotrexate

All of the following are characteristics of tooth loss in the elderly except

D) consumption of applesauce instead of apples and creamed corn instead of corn on the cob reduces nutrient bioavaliability and impairs nutritional health

The relationship of overweight and health risks diminishes with age, starting after age

C)55

Which of the following statements describes one aspect of mineral nutrition of older adults?

B) iron absorption is reduced due to low stomach acidity

A person with a pressure ulcer has damage to her

A) skin

A person who is edentulous has

A) no teeth

Which of the following feature of energy intake and longevity?

A) improvements in longevity depend on reducing energy intake but not the amount of body fat

Which of the following is a finding from studies of diet restriction in rats?

C) energy-restricted diets lead to lowering of the metabolic rate and temperature

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