results from removal of the superficial layers of the skin caused by friction between the skin and the injuring object
A reversable, structural, or functional response both to normal (physiologic) conditions and to adverse (pathologic) conditions in order to maintain homeostasis.
time-dependent loss of structure and function
postmortem reduction in body temp
total lack of oxygen
an active process of cellular self-destruction called programmed cell death, implicated in both normal and pathologic tissue changes
injury caused by failure of cells to receive or use oxygen
A decrease or shrinkage in cellular size; can affect entire tissues or organs. Most common in skeletal muscle, heart, secondary sex organs and the brain.
the process of cellular self-digestion
membrane bound vesicles within the cell that contain cellular debris and hydrolytic enzymes
the process of self-digestion by a cell in order to recycle cellular components; maintains cellular metabolism during starvation
normal yellow-green pigment of bile derived from the porphyrin structure of hemoglobin; excessive levels cause jaundice; unconjugated bilirubin is lipid soluble and can damage cell membranes
blunt force injury
mechanical injury to body resulting in tearing, shearing, or crushing; most common injury seen in healthcare, caused by blows or impact, MVA, and falls
carbon monoxide (CO)
an odorless, colorless and undetectable gas produced by incomplete combustion of fuels like gasoline; causes hypoxic injury
the resulting molecule when hemoglobin binds with carbon monoxide
a combination of coagulative and liquefactive necrosis that usually results from TB infection; the dead cells disintegrate but debris is not fully digested, so tissues resemble soft cheese.
cell cycle regulatory enzyme that initiates apoptosis
cellular accumulation (infiltration)
intracellular accumulation of abnormal amounts of various substances; an important manifestation of cellular injury
caused by shift of extracellular water into cells; most common degenerative change
prevent the delivery of oxygen to tissues or block oxygen utilization
heavy edged instruments (axes, hatchets, propeller blades, etc) produce wounds with a combination of sharp and blunt force characteristics.
occurs primarily in kidneys, heart, and adrenal cells; commonly results from hypoxia/ischemia; caused by protein denaturation (particularly albumin)
an adaptive mechanism that enables certain organs to regenerate; occurs significantly in epidermal and intestinal epithelia, hepatocytes, bone marrow cells, fibroblasts, and some bone, cartilage, and smooth muscle.
bruising; bleeding into skin or underlying tissues
chemical asphyxiant that blocks the intracellular use of oxygen; signs are similar to carbon monoxide posioning
membrane bound hemeproteins that are primarily responsible for generation of ATP via electron transport
atrophy that occurs in skeletal muscles with prolonged periods of non use
an alteration of oxygen delivery to tissues resulting from the inhalation of fluid, usually water; major injury is hypoxia
drowning that occurs with little or no water entering lungs due to vagal nerve mediated larynogospasms; occurs in 15% of drownings
dysplasia (atypical hyperplasia)
abnormal changes in the size, shape, and organization of mature cels
calcification of dying and dead tissues that occurs as a reaction to tissue injury; necrosis is one example
endoplasmic stress (ER stress)
excessive accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER; results in apoptotic cell death
alcohol; primary choice of mood-alternating drug in U.S.
gunshot injury; has the same appearance regardless of range of fire; size cannot determine if entrance or exit wound; usually has clean edges
cellular dissolution caused by lipases that occur most often in breast, pancreas, and abdominal structures; lipases break down triglycerides, which combine with Ca, Mg, and Na ions to form opaque and chalk-white soaps.
fat-free mass (FFM)
mass of the body minus lipids (includes all minerals, proteins, water, etc.)
a result of cellular injury and swelling in which lipids (fat vesicles) invade the area of injury; occurs most commonly in the liver.
fetal alcohol syndrome
caused by prenatal alcohol exposure; causes growth retardation, facial anomalies, cognitive impairment and occular malformation
clinical syndrome in older adults involving negative energy balance, sarcopenia, and diminished strength and tolerance for exertion, which leaves a person vulnerable to falls, functional decline, disability, disease, and death.
an electrically uncharged atom or group of atoms that has an unpaired electron (ROS - reactive oxygen species)
death of tissue from hypoxia, commonly from arteiosclerosis and affecting lower leg; may be be classified as dry, where the skin appears brown and wrinkled, or wet, where the skin appears cold, swollen and black as a result of liquefactive necrosis occurring at the site
the weight of the body causes constriction and compression of the neck; leaves an inverted "v" around neck; victim may lack soft tissue or spinal damage
includes hemoglobin and cytochromes; the most essential endogenous pigments
a yellow-brown pigment derived from hemoglobin; responsible for the yellow color of bruises
condition in which excess iron is stored as hemosiderin in any tissue and organ cells; caused by excessive dietary iron, blood transfusions, iron storage diseases, and excessive wine usage
occurs chiefly in estrogen-dependent organs such as the uterus and breast; enables buildup of endometrium in preparation of pregnancy
sewer gas; a chemical asphyxiant, causes brown-tinged blood and nonspecific signs of asphyxiation
an increase in the NUMBER of cells, resulting from an increased rate of cellular division
increase in the SIZE of cells and consequently in the size of the affected organ
lack of sufficient oxygen; most common cause of cell injury
a wound that is longer than it is deep; wound can be straight or jagged with sharp, distinct edges; usually produces significant external bleeding with little internal hemorrhage
injury that results in cell death
reduced blood supply; often caused by ateriosclerosis or thombosis
nuclear dissolution and lysis of chromatin from the action of hydrolytic enzymes
fragmentation of the nucleus into smaller particles of "nuclear dust"
tear or rip resulting when tensile strength of skin or tissue is exceeded; injury is ragged and irregular with adbraided edges
heavy metal that exists in the environment
the average number of years of life; varies according to genetics, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, geography, and other factors
strangulation without suspension using a cord-like object; leaves horizontal mark around neck; petechiae more common; internal neck injuries rare.
Destruction of unsaturated fatty acids with free radicals. This interaction creates peroxides. The peroxides set off a chain rxn resulting in membrane, organelle, and cellular destruction.
a yellow-brown age pigment that resists destruction by lysosomal enzymes, resulting in membrane-bound residual bodies that accumulate in the hepatic, myocardial and atrophic cells.
commonly results from ischemic injury to nerve and glial cells in brain; injured cells release hydrolases that digests brain tissue; tissue becomes soft, liquefies, and segregates, forming cysts. May be caused by staph, strep, or E. coli infections.
a purple discoloration that occurs postmortem as gravity causes blood to pool in the lowest tissues
stragulations using fingers; causes variable amounts of external trauma on neck, including contusions and abrasions; severe internal damage and petechiae are common
maximal life span
the maximum number of years the human body can survive; 80-100 years
black-brown pigment that accumulates in epithelial cells of skin, retina, and protects the skin from sun exposure
tissue that arises from the embryonic mesoderm that acts as stem cells
the reversible replacement of one mature cell type by another, sometimes less differentiated, cell type
mineral deposits that occur in undamaged tissues due to hypercalcemia
mitochondrial DNA (mDNA)
DNA found in mitochrondia, which varies from somatic cell DNA
the sum of cellular changes after local cell death, characterized by the rapid loss of the plasma membrane, organelle swelling, mitochrondrial dysfunction, and lack of typical features of apoptosis.
oncosis (vacuolar degeneration)
cytoplasmic swelling; considered sublethal and reversible; noted in almost all cellular injury
occurs when free radicals overwhelm endogenous antioxidant systems
atrophy that occurs as a result of decreases in workload, pressure, use, blood supply, nutrition, hormonal or nervous stimulation.
the abnormal proliferation of normal cells, usually in response to excessive hormonal stimulation or growth factors on target cells
atrophy that occurs early in development, like with the thymus gland
postmortem putrification changes that begin to occur 24-48 hours after death; caused by the release of enzymes and lytic dissolution.
changes that occur shortly after death; includes complete cessation of respiration and circulation; surface of skin becomes pale and yellowish; body temp falls; BP falls; decreased muscle tension; pupils become dilated and fixed; livor mortis and subsequent rigor mortis sets in.
programmed necrosis (necroptosis)
type of necrosis that is orchestrated by the cell as a backup to apoptosis.
protein degrading complexes involved in protein catabolism
gritty, sand-like clumps of calcium salts that build up in tissues as a result of hypercalcemia
injury caused by instrument or object with sharp points but no sharp edges (such as a nail); prone to infection, have abrasions of edges and can be very deep
type of nuclear dissolution where the nucleus shrinks and becomes a small, dense mass of genetic material
injury that results from the restoration of oxygen following hypoxic event due to oxidative stress which causes further cell membrane damage and mitochondrial calcium overload
injury from which the cell can recover and does not result in cell death
the stiffening of muscles that occurs after death due to depletion of ATP, causing detachment of myosin from actin in muscle cells
loss of muscle mass and strength
death of the entire person
a penetrating sharp force injury that is deep than it is long; wound may be almost closed by tissue pressure, causing little superficial bleeding despite copious internal bleeding
asphyxial injury caused by compression and closure of the blood vessels and air passages resulting from external pressure on the neck, causing cerebral hypoxia
oxygen fails to reach the blood
Small protein that is linked to other proteins as a way of marking the targeted protein for degradation by proteasomes.
the primary pathway of protein catabolism
uric acid; major end product of purine catabolism; excessive urate levels tissues leads to gout
formation of vacuoles in the cytoplasm and swelling of lysosomes and mitochondria result from damage to the outer membrane if O2 is not restored
toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic chemicals; bind to lipoproteins and can penetrate lipid bilayer
either penetrating (bullet remains in body) or perforating (bullet exits body); bullet can also fragment; most important factors are if it is an entrance or exit wound and the range of fire
protein in plasma that protects cells by binding with unconjugated bilirubin