between Rocky Mountains and Mississippi River, N. Canada to Texas, vast inland sea, high grassland region, rich soil, wheat inhabited by Native Americans
Homestead Act (1862)
provided 160 acres in the West to any citizen or intended citizen who was the head of a household and would cultivate the land for five years
Pacific Railroad Act (1862)
Called for the building of the Transcontinental Railroad to stretch across America connecting California and the rest of America.
Sand Creek Massacre
In Colorado territory in 1864, the Colorado militia and Colonel John M. Chivington led a surprise attack on a peaceful Cheyenne settlement along Sand Creek River. The Cheyenne under Chief Black kettle tried to surrender. First he waved the America Flag and the White flag of surrender. Chivington ignored the gestures. The U.S army killed about 200 Cheyenne during the conflict
trail to connect mining towns, through Sioux hunting grounds in Montana; , In attempts to block the construction of this road to MT, Sioux massacred and mutilated 81 soldiers under Capt. Fetterman's command; Native Americans call this fight Battle of The Hundred Slain. Whites called it the Fetterman Massacre.
Fetterman's army led into wilderness and ambushed by Sioux, 82 soldiers killed, sparked public debate over Indian policy
a chief of the Sioux who resisted the invasion of the Black Hills and joined Sitting Bull in the defeat of General Custer at Little Bighorn; Sioux warrior who ambushed Captain William Fetterman and his company at long trail ridge on the Bozeman trail.
Sioux chief who led the attack on Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn; continually resisted assimilation
Treaty of 1868
Allowed Navajo to return to their homeland, restored a small part of their previous lands and agriculture; , promised white man could never own badlands
Red River War of 1874-1875
war between Kiowa and Comanche; gov. herds people of friendly tribes onto reservations while opening fire on all others
mountains in western South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming; sacred land for the Sioux; rich with gold
George Armstrong Custer
United States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn (Custer's Last Stand)
sturdy, short-tempered breeds accustomed to the dry grasslands of southern Spain; were brought over for work and transportation
the place where the transcontinental railroad (Union and Central Pacific) was joined on May 10, 1869
Frederick Jackson Turner
United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history; "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
"The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
An essay with the thesis of that the nation's character was shaped by the frontier. In the essay, Frederick Jackson Turner suggested a link between the closing of the frontier and oversea expansion.
an increase in prices or declines in purchasing power caused by an increase in the supply of money (value of money goes down)
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
a late 19th century political movement demanding that people have a greater voice in government and seeking to advance the interests of farmers and laborers
Populist ("People's") Party
founded in 1892 advocated variety of reform issues, including free coinage of silver, income tax, postal savings, regulation of railroads, and direct election of U.S. senators
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party. Later a witness in the Scopes Monkey Trial; Cross of Gold Speech
Battle of Little Big Horn, MT (1876)
Sioux leader sitting bull led the fight against general George Custer and the 7th cavalry. The Sioux wanted miners out of the black hills, and had appealed to government officials in Washington to stop the miners. Washington doesn't listen. When custer came to little bighorn rivers sitting bull and his warriors were ready and killed them all! (Custer's Last Stand)
Helen Hunt Jackson
an author who wrote A Century of Dishonor which chronicled the government's actions against the Indians. Her writing helped inspire sympathy towards the Indians.
A Century of Dishonor
Written by Helen Hunt Jackson, it detailed the injustices made to Native Americans during US expansion
Dawes Act (1887)
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possession, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
Kill the Indian and save the man.
the saying to take his culture, background, and everything about his Native American culture and get rid of it, replace it with what is American
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
Battle of Wounded Knee, SD (1890)
US soldiers massacred about 300 Sioux Indians because of their Ghost Dance ritual, marked the end of the Indian Wars
Era where the open range is closed down and cattlemen have to fight w/ farmers & sheepherders for grazing lands
small sod home, warm in the winter and cool in the summer, prone to leaking and snakes,insects, and other pests
Morrill Land Grant Acts (1860, 1890)
gave federal land to the states to help finance agricultural colleges
the 1892 platform of the Populist party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding economic and political reform
business cycle ("boom" or "bust")
recurring fluctuations in economic activity consisting of recession and recovery and growth and decline
Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist
business mogul, financial power behind McKinley's nomination and his subsequent campaign for president; promised a strong and prosperous industrial nation; a mass media genius
a low-key electoral campaign used in American politics in which the candidate remains close to or at home to make speeches to supporters who come to visit. The candidate largely does not travel around or otherwise actively campaign. The successful presidential campaigns of James A. Garfield in 1880, Benjamin Harrison in 1888 and William McKinley in 1896 are perhaps the best-known front porch campaigns