Nutrition chapter 9

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What is the chief reason that health-care professionals advise people to engage only in low-to-moderate intensity activities for prolonged duration rather than more intense, shorter routines?

Compliance is better

What is the primary reason that laxatives are generally not effective agents for losing weight?

They act on the large intestine rather than the small intestine

Adverse side effects of typical low-carbohydrate diets include all of the following except

high blood pressure.

According to body mass index values, what fraction of the U.S. adult population is considered overweight or obese?

2/3

Approximately how many kcalories are expended per kilogram body weight when walking a mile at a moderate pace?

1

A typical person who burns 200 kcalories during a 2-mile run would, in the postexercise period, burn an additional

30 kcalories

What is Prader-Willi syndrome?

A genetic disorder resulting in obesity

Which of the following defines the body's set point?

Point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight

Compared with non-obese people, obese people have a lower

physical activity level.

What is the best approach to weight loss?

Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure

Aggressive treatment should be introduced in obese people if they have which of the following risk factors?

High LDL and low HDL

What is the principal reason that the FDA has banned the sale of products containing ephedrine?

The products were implicated in several cases of heart attacks and seizures

Which of the following is a feature of the body's response to engaging in physical activity?

After an intense and vigorous workout, metabolism remains elevated for several hours

Upon beginning a meal, the satiety signal in the body is sent after a lag time of about

29 minutes

Fraudulent weight reduction literature refers to visually apparent lumpy forms of body fat as

cellulite.

All of the following are meal-planning strategies for underweight people who desire to gain weight except

they should refrain from between-meal snacking, especially energy drinks.

Approximately what percentage of U.S. adults are classified as underweight?

5

Which of the following is the most likely explanation that environment must play a role in obesity?

The rate of obesity has been rising while the gene pool has remained relatively constant

All of the following are characteristics of food portion sizes except

reducing portion size has a bigger impact than reducing energy density as a means of lowering total energy intake.

All of the following are associations between the environment and food intake except

distractions generally appear to reduce food intake.

In a weight reduction regimen, the most realistic time frame for losing 10% of initial body weight is

6 months

What are the observed effects of sleep deprivation on leptin and ghrelin?

Leptin decreases while ghrelin increases

Because obesity apparently has many causes, even in an individual, the best approach seems to be

prevention.

All of the following are sensible guidelines for diet plans except

eat rapidly to avoid prolonged contact with food.

The dieter's typical responses to a high-protein diet include all of the following except

a slow re-gain of the lost weight.

Which of the following is a feature of ghrelin?

It stimulates appetite and energy storage

What serves as the body's chief storage site for lipids?

White adipose tissue

Which of the following is a feature of successful weight-loss dieting with time?

Most of the weight loss occurs within the first 6 months and then reaches a plateau

All of the following describe the behavior of fat cells except

the number decreases when fat is lost from the body.

What is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people?

0.5-2 lbs/week

On which organ or tissue does leptin primarily act?

Hypothalamus

Which of the following describes the research results of obese women in weight-loss programs?

They initially expected to lose unrealistic amounts of weight

The drug sibutramine reduces appetite by affecting

serotonin utilization in the brain.

Which of the following describes the research results of obese women in weight-loss programs?

obesity.

What is the rationale for the fat cell theory of obesity?

Fat cell number increases most readily in late childhood and early puberty

Compared with the past two decades, current dietary trends in fat and/or energy intake for U.S. adults include all of the following except

our higher prevalence of obesity is due primarily to excess carbohydrate intake.

Obesity resulting from an increase in the size of fat cells is termed

hypertrophic obesity.

Bariatrics is a field of medicine that specializes in the treatment of

obesity.

The thermic effect in people who regularly consume a high-protein diet for 10 years would, in theory, prevent them from gaining approximately how many pounds?

10

All of the following are features of high-protein diets except

they provide for long-term weight maintenance.

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