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Higher GPAs in both high school and college are correlated with which of the following personality traits?

conscientiousness

Which of the following personality traits, when seen in married individuals, reduces the risk of divorce?

conscientiousness

Which of the following personality traits has been shown to be related to health and well-being to such a degree that individuals high in this trait live longer than other people?

conscientiousness

The _____ movement in psychology was intended to answer the critics of behavioral psychology who pointed out that behaviorists ignored the underlying mental processes of personality

social cognitive

Terracciano, et al (2005) studied which of the following variables related to personality theories?

national character

According to Rogers what type of love influences children to overcome feeling of unworthiness?

unconditional

The two aspects of an individual's behavior that are central to the concept of personality are

consistency and distinctiveness

Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to reduce a huge list of personality traits compiled by Gordon Allport down to _____ basic dimensions of personality

16

Marcos is very quiet and avoids large groups. Some people consider him unfriendly, and he seldom takes a stand or acts assertively. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Macros would probably score

high in neuroticism

Julio is extremely dependable and productive, and his friends think he is great at organizing events. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Julio would probably score

high in conscientiousness

Janelle is suspicious and uncooperative. Her friends think she is a boastful person who is seldom sympathetic. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Janelle would probably score

low in agreeableness

The component of personality that operates according to the reality principle is the

ego

Jason just sat down to work on his term paper when his friends called and invited him to a party. If Jason decides he will only go to the party after he finishes outlining the term paper, his decision reflects the functioning of his

ego

According to psychoanalytic theory, a person who is conservative, strict, and moralistic is strongly influenced by her

superego

The thoughts, memories, and desires you have that you do not realize you have are in your _____ awareness

Unconscious

The largely unconscious reactions used to protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt are

defense mechanisms

When people give a false but plausible excuse to justify their unacceptable behavior, they are using

rationalization

If she is using the defense mechanism of projection, a mother who actually hates her son would MOST likely be both unaware of her hatred and

`believe that her son hated her

A man who has numerous reasons to hate his mother instead lavishes her with unrealistic amounts of attention and love. He is probably exhibiting the defense mechanism of

reaction formation

When people attempt to bolster their self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group, they are using

identification

Failure to resolve conflict at a particular stage of psychosexual development may lead to failure to move forward to the next stage, a phenomenon that Freud called

fixation

The correct order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development is

oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

The crucial developmental task associated with the anal stage is

toilet training

During the genital stage sexual energy is primarily

focused toward peers of the opposite sex.

According to the psychoanalytic view, many important life choices and decisions are based on

unconscious urges and mechanisms.

Jung termed emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning in a wide variety of cultures

archetypes

The central aspect of Adler's theory of personality is that people

strive to adapt and master life's challenges

Mark has been unsuccessful in using compensation to help him master life's challenges; according to Adler's theory Mark may exhibit

an inferiority complex

Which of the following definitions of "personality" BEST reflects the views of B.F. Skinner?

a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations

A social cognitive theorist would MOST likely explain the behavior of a spoiled brat in terms of which of the following?

learning through observation and reinforcement

Mary observes another's performance and says, "Gee, I think I can do that." Bandura calls this personal evaluation

self-efficacy

Which psychologist observed that people tend to exhibit far less consistency in their behavior across situations than most other theorists would predict?

Walter Mischel

Mischel would explain an individual's behavior by focusing on

situational factors.

The broad category of personality theory that assumes people are largely conscious and rational beings who are not dominated by unconscious, irrational needs and conflicts is the

biological perspective

The collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior is referred to as one's _____, according to Rogers

self-concept

According to Carl Rogers, if your self-concept is reasonably accurate, it is said to be

congruent with reality

According to Rogers, children who experience _____ love or affection tend to develop an incongruent self-concept as a result of blocking from their self-concept those experiences that did not receive parental affection

conditional

Maslow's systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused is referred to as

a hierarchy of needs

John, a college student, is very interested in his courses and is planning on attending graduate school in psychology. Which of the following types of needs has John probably NOT yet satisfied?

self-actualization

Maslow describes people who have exceptionally healthy personalities marked by continued personal growth as

self-actualizing

Behavioral genetics, the evolutionary approach, and Eysenck's theory all approach the study of personality from the

biological perspective

The findings from twin studies indicate that identical twins are much more similar than fraternal twins on which of the following?

all the personality traits in the five-factor model of personality

Terror management theory asserts that much of our behavior is motivated by our needs

to defend our worldview and preserve our self-esteem

Consistent with terror management theory, in the months following 9/11, individuals showed all of the following behaviors EXCEPT an

increase in separations and divorces

The American cultural conception of self results in children

developing an independent view of the self and defining themselves in terms of personal attributes

Personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior are referred to as

self-report inventories.

Sylvia is diagnosed with schizophrenia. If she takes the MMPI, the results would be MOST likely to

show high scores on several subscales

Which of the following personality tests was designed to measure the Big Five traits?

NEO Personality Inventory

Janice was shown a series of cards with vague, ambiguous scenes and asked to describe what she thought was happening in each scene. Janice was given a(an) _____ test called the _____.

projective; TAT

You are asked to tell stories about a series of pictures. Which test is being administered to you?

TAT

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