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Public speaking at JCCC with Daniel Cramer

Recognizing that the audience for his graduation speech would be packed into a non-air-conditioned gymnasium during the hottest week of the year, Kane decided to keep his speech at the low end of his 10-to-15-minute time limit. In making this decision, Kane was adapting to which element of the speech communication process?
A) channel
B) situation
C) location
D) message
E) feedback

B

Which of the following strategies is least likely to help you deal with nervousness in your speeches?
A) using visual aids
B) making eye contact with members of your audience
C) concentrating on your stage fright
D) thinking positively
E) working especially hard on your introduction

C

Dealing with such matters as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion are all part of what your textbook calls
A) deduction.
B) rational communication.
C) induction.
D) oral deliberation.
E) critical thinking.

E

As you present your speech, you notice that many of your listeners have interested looks on their faces and are nodding their heads in agreement with your ideas. According to your textbook, these reactions by your listeners are called
A) audience cues.
B) cognitive cues.
C) interference.
D) indicators.
E) feedback.

E

Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way to deal with stage fright?
A) Acquire speaking experience and turn negative thoughts into positive ones.
B) Turn negative thoughts into positive ones.
C) Acquire speaking experience.
D) Don't expect perfection.
E) all of these choices.

E

To say that public speaking is a way to make a difference about something we care about is to recognize that public speaking is
A) a skill similar to conversation and an art more than a science.
B) a form of empowerment.
C) an art more than a science.
D) a skill similar to conversation.
E) all of these choices.

B

Mary listened to the campus president speak on the radio at the same time that Jamal was part of the audience in the hall where the president was speaking. Later, Mary said she thought the president's words stated clearly that he opposed an increase in tuition. But Jamal said that the way the president avoided looking at students when he talked about tuition made it seem the president actually supported an increase in tuition. The difference in the messages Mary and Jamal received most likely resulted from the fact that
A) Mary and Jamal received the message through different channels.
B) Mary is a better listener than Jamal.
C) Mary and Jamal both experienced feedback.
D) Mary and Jamal are majoring in different subjects.
E) Jamal is a better listener than Mary.

A

The means by which a message is communicated is termed the
A) occasion.
B) setting.
C) channel.
D) stimulus.
E) catalyst.

C

The tendency to see the beliefs, values, and customs of one's own culture or group as "right" or "natural" is called
A) exclusivity.
B) essentialism.
C) ethnocentrism.
D) egocentrism.
E) ethnicity.

C

Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way of dealing with nervousness in your speeches?
A) Concentrate on communicating with the audience rather than on your nerves and as you rehearse, visualize yourself giving a successful speech.
B) As you rehearse, visualize yourself giving a successful speech.
C) Remember that your nervousness is not usually visible to your audience.
D) Concentrate on communicating with the audience rather than on your nerves.
E) all of these choices.

E

Renée is a U.S. college student who was asked to speak at an end-of-the-year banquet sponsored by the International Student Association. When Renée suggested in her speech that all students should behave like people in the United States, she was reflecting
A) the environmental dictates of the situation.
B) her listeners' frame of reference.
C) effective audience analysis.
D) an ethnocentric point of view.
E) a sensitivity to cultural diversity.

D

As Benita approached the podium, loud voices from the hallway filled the room. Before beginning her speech, she asked someone in the back of the room to close the door. In this case, Benita was dealing with
A) interference.
B) feedback.
C) stage fright.
D) nonverbal communication.
E) audience attitudes.

A

In the midst of a speech about volcanoes, a speaker notices quizzical expressions on the faces of her listeners. In response, she says, "Let me explain that point again to make sure it's clear." When this happens, the speaker is
A) adjusting the channel.
B) adapting to feedback.
C) building her credibility.
D) interpreting the audience's frame of reference.
E) compensating for the situation.

B

When you experience stage fright, your body is producing extra _______________, a hormone that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress.
A) glauconite
B) serotonin
C) potassium
D) cortisone
E) adrenaline

E

According to your textbook, a listener anxious about an upcoming exam, worried about a recent argument with a friend, or distracted by cold air in the classroom would be experiencing
A) psychological dissonance.
B) situational cues.
C) feedback.
D) interference.
E) communication apprehension.

D

Heather was in the midst of an excellent speech on campus history when she made a minor mistake by giving the wrong date for the opening of a campus building. She suddenly stopped speaking and said, "Oh, I messed up." She then finished her speech, but all she could think about afterward was her mistake. What is the major piece of advice from your textbook that Heather needs to be reminded about?
A) You should take slow, deep breaths before you speak.
B) It is natural for public speakers to be nervous.
C) Audiences usually can't tell how nervous a speaker is.
D) There is no such thing as a perfect speech.
E) You should work especially hard on your introduction.

D

As you listen to a speech about campus crime, you relate the speaker's ideas to your own knowledge, goals, and experience. According to your textbook, you are filtering the speech through your own
A) social perspective.
B) frame of reference.
C) personal vision.
D) psychological screen.
E) cognitive field.

B

As your textbook explains, many of the skills used in public speaking are the same as those used in everyday conversation. These skills include
A) organizing your thoughts logically.
B) tailoring your message to your audience.
C) all of these choices.
D) telling a story for maximum impact.
E) telling a story for maximum impact and organizing your thoughts logically.

C

Which of the following aspects of public speaking is least likely to help strengthen your skills as a critical thinker?
A) practicing the delivery of your speech
B) researching your speech
C) outlining and organizing your speech
D) testing the logic of your arguments
E) assessing the validity of your evidence

A

Sridhar is from India and has decided to give his informative speech on Indian marriage customs. Because he will be getting married back home the next summer, he is very excited about the topic. He is concerned, however, that his classmates, all of whom are from the United States, may think he is saying that marriage traditions in India are better than those in the United States. Sridhar's concern indicates that he is sensitive to the problem of
A) egocentrism and ethical relativism.
B) all of these choices.
C) ethical relativism.
D) ethnocentrism.
E) egocentrism.

D

According to your textbook, "Getting an internship at a major corporation requires a great deal of work, but the rewards are well worth the effort" is an example of a(n)
A) specific purpose.
B) central idea.
C) speech proposal.
D) informative thesis.
E) topic statement.

B

"To understand the role of dance marathons in American popular culture, one needs to know why they started, how they evolved, and what they are like today" is an example of a
A) topic statement.
B) specific purpose.
C) mission statement.
D) central idea.
E) transition statement.

D

The specific purpose of Stephanie's informative speech is "To inform my audience about ballet." Are there any flaws in Stephanie's specific purpose?
A) No. Stephanie has a strong specific purpose statement.
B) Yes. Stephanie's specific purpose mentions her audience. statement.
C) Yes. Stephanie's specific purpose is too broad.
D) Yes. Stephanie's specific purpose is written as a statement rather than a question.
E) Yes. Stephanie's specific purpose is too impersonal.

C

"The laser is a highly versatile instrument with important uses in medicine, industry, and art" is an example of a
A) central idea.
B) transition.
C) general thesis.
D) specific purpose.
E) topic statement.

A

The central idea of a speech should be
A) expressed as a statement, not a question.
B) written as a complete sentence and expressed as a statement.
C) devoid of figurative language.
D) all of these choices.
E) written as a complete sentence.

D

According to your textbook, what is the most important early step in the process of developing a successful speech?
A) formulating the specific purpose
B) researching for speech materials
C) selecting the residual message
D) brainstorming for a central idea
E) creating a preliminary bibliography

A

"To inform my audience about the history of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation" is an example of a
A) general purpose.
B) specific purpose.
C) central idea.
D) thesis statement.
E) speech topic.

B

According to your textbook, brainstorming is especially helpful when you are having trouble
A) choosing a speech topic.
B) determining the general purpose.
C) analyzing the audience.
D) phrasing the central idea.
E) determining the specific purpose.

A

"The three kinds of bait used to attract fish are live bait, prepared bait, and artificial bait" is an example of a
A) topic statement.
B) specific purpose.
C) central idea.
D) general thesis.
E) transition.

C

Identify the flaw in the following specific purpose statement for a classroom speech: "To inform my audience about the stock market."
A) It's too detailed.
B) It's too figurative.
C) It's too technical.
D) It's too general.
E) It's too trivial.

D

Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a method of brainstorming for a speech topic?
A) clustering
B) clustering and conducting an Internet search
C) taking a personal inventory
D) conducting an Internet search
E) all of these choices

E

"Improving personal relationships" is a poorly phrased specific purpose for a speech because it is
A) written as a statement rather than a question.
B) written as a sentence rather than a declarative phrase.
C) expressed in figurative language.
D) too technical for a classroom speech.
E) written as a fragment rather than a full infinitive phrase.

E

"Knowing how to deal with stress" is a poorly phrased specific purpose for a classroom speech because it
A) contains figurative language.
B) does not include a reference to the audience.
C) is too technical.
D) is too technical and contains figurative language.
E) all of these choices.

B

"To inform my audience about the basic steps in car maintenance and how to protect their investment with auto insurance" is a poorly phrased specific purpose statement for a classroom speech because it
A) contains figurative language.
B) is written as a statement instead of a question.
C) is too technical.
D) contains more than one distinct idea.
E) is too specific.

D

Chang thinks he'd like to give an informative speech for class on what it's like to be an international student on a U.S. college campus. His specific purpose is "To persuade my audience to be more accepting of international students." His central idea is "An international student's accent, use of English, and cultural customs should be accepted rather than criticized." Has Chang made any mistakes in this process?
A) No. Chang has covered all the bases for an informative speech.
B) Yes. Chang's specific purpose contains too much figurative language.
C) Yes. Chang's specific purpose is not suitable for an informative speech.
D) Yes. Chang's specific purpose statement is too technical for a classroom speech.
E) Yes. Chang's central idea contains two or more unrelated ideas.

C

As a specific purpose statement, "To inform my audience about computer technology" is too
A) trivial.
B) broad.
C) detailed.
D) technical.
E) figurative.

B

"To inform my audience that the National Football League's video replay system should be adopted by college football in order to eliminate officiating errors" is a poor specific purpose statement for an informative speech because
A) all of these choices.
B) it contains more than one distinct idea.
C) it is phrased in figurative language.
D) it is phrased in figurative language and contains more than one distinct idea.
E) the stated goal is persuasive rather than informative.

E

After choosing a topic, what is the next step of speech preparation?
A) determining the general purpose
B) writing the introduction
C) selecting the specific purpose
D) analyzing the occasion
E) phrasing the central idea

A

Identify the flaw in the following specific purpose statement for a classroom speech: "To inform my audience about Christianity."
A) It's too broad.
B) It's too specific.
C) It's too technical.
D) It's too figurative.
E) It's too personal.

A

Which of the following is out of place in a speech to inform?
A) explaining
B) advocating
C) telling
D) reporting
E) demonstrating

B

Subpoints in a preparation outline are indicated
A) in the same manner as main points.
B) by capital letters.
C) in the same manner as sub-subpoints.
D) by Roman numerals.
E) by Arabic numbers.

B

Outlining is important to public speaking because an outline helps a speaker
A) all of these choices.
B) solidify the structure of a speech.
C) ensure that ideas flow clearly from one to another.
D) ensure that ideas flow clearly from one to another and solidify the structure of a speech.
E) judge whether each part of the speech is fully developed.

A

According to your textbook, Raul should include which of the following in his preparation outline?
A) the central idea and a bibliography
B) a bibliography
C) transitions
D) all of these choices
E) the central idea

D

Two types of speech outlines discussed in your textbook are the
A) audience outline and the preparation outline.
B) rough draft outline and the polished outline.
C) preparation outline and the delivery outline.
D) speaking outline and the audience outline.
E) preparation outline and the speaking outline.

E

According to your textbook, outlining is important to public speaking because an outline helps you judge whether
A) all of these choices.
B) your main points are properly balanced.
C) your main points are properly balanced and you have adequate supporting materials for your main points.
D) you have adequate supporting materials for your main points.
E) your speech will be interesting to the audience.

C

Arranged in random order below are a main point, two subpoints, and two sub-subpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the first subpoint?
A) Usually about 80 percent of job applicants do not pass the screening interview.
B) The purpose of a manager interview is to evaluate those people who survive the screening interview.
C) The 20 percent who do pass the screening interview get invited back for a manager interview.
D) The two types of job interviews used by most companies are the screening interview and the manager interview.
E) The purpose of a screening interview is just what the name implies—to screen out people the company doesn't want to hire.

E

Arranged below are a main point, two subpoints, and two sub-subpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the second subpoint?
A) Meteorologica was written around 340 B.C.
B) Aristotle presented his theories in a book called Meteorologica.
C) After Thales, Aristotle was the major figure in ancient meteorology.
D) In 640 B.C., Thales identified the winter and summer solstices.
E) The science of meteorology first developed in ancient Greece.

C

Arranged in random order below are a main point, one subpoint, and three sub-subpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the main point?
A) One remedy was bleeding the patient by taking out a pint or two of blood.
B) A third remedy was wrapping the patient's neck with a piece of flannel soaked in foul-smelling salve.
C) Another remedy was soaking the patient with huge quantities of baking soda dissolved in water.
D) Included among those remedies are some highly bizarre—and even dangerous—practices.
E) Over the years, people have tried many remedies to combat the common cold.

E

According to your textbook, which of the following should be included in a preparation outline?
A) transitions and a bibliography
B) research notes
C) a bibliography
D) all of these choices
E) transitions

A

According to your textbook, as Bekah prepares her preparation outline for her speech on spiders, she should remember to include all of the following except
A) transitions, internal previews, and internal summaries.
B) labels for the introduction, body, and conclusion.
C) a bibliography.
D) a specific purpose statement.
E) directions for delivering the speech.

E

Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline?
A) The place of the wolf in the ancestry of the domestic dog.
B) The ancestry of the domestic dog can be directly traced to the wolf.
C) Wolves and the domestic dog.
D) Wolves.
E) Did you know that all domestic dogs are descended from the wolf?

B

A speech title should
A) all of these choices.
B) be brief.
C) attract the attention of the audience.
D) attract the attention of the audience and suggest the main thrust of the speech.
E) suggest the main thrust of the speech.

A

Which of the following is mentioned in your textbook as a guideline for a preparation outline?
A) Label the introduction, body, and conclusion.
B) Use parallel wording for subpoints and sub-subpoints.
C) Position the title so it appears immediately before the central idea.
D) Identify the specific purpose with a Roman numeral.
E) Include a startling statement in the introduction to get attention.

A

The main points in a preparation outline are
A) identified by Roman numerals.
B) written in phrases, not full sentences.
C) identified by Arabic numbers.
D) identified by capital letters.
E) located farther to the right than subpoints.

A

Arranged in random order below are a main point, two subpoints, and two sub-subpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the main point?
A) Each year about 7,400 people die from melanoma in the U.S.
B) Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer.
C) Two types of skin cancer are melanoma and basal cell carcinoma.
D) Melanoma is the least common but most deadly form of skin cancer.
E) Of all skin cancers diagnosed in the U.S., only 4 percent are melanoma.

C

Erica has completed her final preparation outline and is preparing her speaking outline for her speech on macrobiotic foods. According to your textbook, as Erica prepares her speaking outline, she should remember to
A) include a bibliography.
B) all of these choices.
C) make sure the outline is plainly legible and keep the outline as brief as possible.
D) keep the outline as brief as possible.
E) make sure the outline is plainly legible.

C

Kelly is working on the preparation outline for her informative speech. According to your textbook, her outline should
A) state main points and subpoints in full sentences.
B) be as brief as possible.
C) contain a bibliography.
D) all of these choices.
E) state main points and subpoints in full sentences and contain a bibliography.

E

According to your textbook, the specific purpose statement in a preparation outline should be written
A) before the text of the outline itself.
B) in capital letters.
C) immediately before the first main point.
D) after the preview statement.
E) at the end of the introduction.

A

Outlining is an important part of public speaking because
A) an outline helps ensure that ideas flow clearly from one to another.
B) an outline helps the speaker compile an organized preliminary bibliography.
C) all of these choices.
D) an outline helps the speaker choose an interesting, sharply focused topic.
E) an outline helps the speaker compile an organized preliminary bibliography and helps ensure that ideas flow clearly from one to another

A

Subpoints in a preparation outline are
A) written in full sentences.
B) indicated by Roman numerals.
C) listed just before the conclusion.
D) indented farther to the left than main points.
E) written in key words to jog the memory.

A

Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
A) a business manager reporting on next year's budget and a teacher lecturing about methods of speech organization
B) all of these choices
C) a business manager reporting on next year's budget
D) a pastor urging parishioners to give to a building fund
E) a teacher lecturing about methods of speech organization

A

If your specific purpose statement were "To inform my audience how to make authentic South American empanadas," you would probably organize your speech in ____________ order.
A) illustrative
B) comparative
C) causal
D) chronological
E) spatial

D

According to your textbook, the questions listeners ask when judging an informative speech include
A) Is the information communicated accurately?
B) Is the information communicated clearly?
C) all of these choices
D) Is the information made meaningful and interesting to the audience?
E) Is the information communicated clearly and accurately?

C

If your specific purpose were "To inform my audience how windows are manufactured," you would probably organize your speech in ____________ order.
A) analogical or spatial
B) causal or comparative
C) chronological or topical
D) comparative or chronological
E) process or topical

C

If your specific purpose statement were "To inform my audience about the major archaeological sites in Central America," you would probably organize your speech in ____________ order.
A) comparative or chronological
B) chronological or causal
C) topical or causal
D) spatial or comparative
E) spatial or topical

E

"To inform my audience how to prepare for a backpacking expedition" is a specific purpose statement for a speech about a(n)
A) object.
B) function.
C) concept.
D) policy.
E) process.

E

If your specific purpose were "To inform my audience of the major steps in an effective job interview," you would probably organize your speech in ___________ order.
A) illustrative
B) spatial
C) comparative
D) causal
E) chronological

E

Each of the following is mentioned in your textbook as a guideline for effective informative speaking except
A) don't overestimate what the audience knows.
B) don't be too technical.
C) relate the subject directly to the audience.
D) personalize your ideas.
E) involve the audience with a call to action.

E

Which of the following are among the methods recommended in your textbook for avoiding too many abstractions in an informative speech?
A) use statistics and testimony
B) use comparison and contrast
C) use testimony and examples
D) use data and technical language
E) use narration and dialogue

B

"To inform my audience about the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II" is an example of a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)
A) event.
B) narrative.
C) function.
D) condition.
E) concept.

A

Which of the following is mentioned in your textbook as a guideline for effective informative speaking?
A) Don't be too technical.
B) all of these choices
C) Relate the subject directly to the audience and don't be too technical.
D) Personalize your ideas.
E) Relate the subject directly to the audience.

B

"To inform my audience about the major achievements of Ronald Reagan" is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)
A) function.
B) object.
C) process.
D) event.
E) concept.

B

Which of the following is mentioned in your textbook as a guideline for effective informative speaking?
A) Relate to the audience by speaking in technical terms.
B) Use chronological organization whenever possible.
C) Avoid talking about your personal experiences.
D) Use abstract language to clarify complex ideas.
E) Don't overestimate what the audience knows.

E

To inform my audience about the major parts of a 35-millimeter camera" is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)
A) object.
B) concept.
C) process.
D) event.
E) function.

A

If your specific purpose statement were "To inform my audience about the different layers of the atmosphere," you would probably organize your speech in ____________ order.
A) chronological
B) comparative
C) spatial
D) topical
E) causal

C

"To inform my audience about the different notions of intellectual property in eastern and western cultures" is an example of a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a(n)
A) event.
B) process.
C) concept.
D) operation.
E) object.

C

Which of the following does your textbook recommend for relating the subject directly to your audience in an informative speech?
A) all of these choices
B) Speak in personal terms such as "you" and "your."
C) Speak in personal terms such as "you" and "your" and take care to establish your credibility in the introduction.
D) Devote an equal amount of time to each main point.
E) Take care to establish your credibility in the introduction.

B

When giving an informative speech, you should take special care to
A) state your ideas in abstract terms.
B) avoid speaking about complex topics.
C) establish goodwill with the audience in your introduction.
D) prepare your introduction before the body of your speech.
E) translate technical information into everyday language.

E

If your specific purpose statement were "To inform my audience about the three major types of pet lizards," you would probably organize your speech in ___________ order.
A) chronological
B) spatial
C) topical
D) causal
E) comparative

C

Which of the following is an instance of informative speaking?
A) a student sharing ideas about leadership based on a book she has read
B) all of these choices
C) a student on stage telling jokes during the intermission of a play
D) a student urging an instructor to reconsider the due date for an assignment
E) a student urging an instructor to reconsider a grade for an assignment

A

Having spent two years working in a television newsroom, Madison decided to give her informative speech on that topic. Because she knew a lot about it and was comfortable speaking to an audience, she didn't spend much time preparing. As a result, her speech was poorly organized, ran overtime, and did not have a clear message. Which guideline for ethical public speaking discussed in your textbook did Madison fail to live up to?
A) Be honest in what you say.
B) Make sure your goals are ethically sound.
C) Be fully prepared for each speech.
D) Avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language.
E) Avoid plagiarism.

C

As your textbook makes clear, speechmaking carries heavy ethical responsibilities because it is a form of
A) privilege.
B) self-expression.
C) authenticity.
D) power.
E) communication.

D

Emil began his research early and found some excellent sources for his informative speech. He cut and pasted passages from several Web sites into a file in his word processor. When he started putting his speech together, he used some complete sentences from the cut-and-pasted materials, paraphrases from other passages, and several original ideas of his own. Unfortunately, Emil forgot to record his sources in his research notes, so he didn't cite any of the sources in his speech. Which of the following statements best describes Emil's situation?
A) Emil is guilty of global plagiarism.
B) Emil is ethical because he started his research early and found good materials.
C) Emil is ethical because he used many of his own ideas.
D) Emil is guilty of incremental plagiarism.
E) Emil is ethical because he meant to take better notes about his sources.

D

According to your textbook, the branch of philosophy that deals with human issues of right and wrong is termed
A) morality.
B) legality.
C) rationalism.
D) ethics.
E) existentialism.

D

The three kinds of plagiarism discussed in your textbook are
A) literary plagiarism, scientific plagiarism, and speech plagiarism.
B) valid plagiarism, incremental plagiarism, and necessary plagiarism.
C) global plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and incremental plagiarism.
D) idea plagiarism, quotation plagiarism, and paraphrase plagiarism.
E) patchwork plagiarism, speech plagiarism, and global plagiarism.

C

As explained in your textbook, public speakers have an ethical obligation to avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language because such language
A) changes meaning based on the frame of reference of the audience.
B) violates current standards of political correctness on college campuses.
C) demeans the personal dignity of the groups or individuals being attacked.
D) is forbidden by the first amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
E) is used by speakers who are not fully prepared for their presentations.

C

To avoid plagiarism when using information from an Internet document in your speech, your textbook recommends that you keep a record of
A) the author or organization responsible for the document.
B) all of these choices.
C) the date on which you accessed the document.
D) the title of the document.
E) the title of the document and the author or organization responsible for the document.

B

A listener's ethical obligation to avoid prejudging a speaker means that a listener should
A) strive to understand the speaker before criticizing his or her ideas.
B) all of these choices.
C) agree with everything the speaker says and focus on the speaker's delivery when responding to the speech.
D) focus on the speaker's delivery when responding to the speech.
E) agree with everything the speaker says.

A

In his persuasive speech, Jeremy argued that the category "sexual orientation" should be added to his state's civil rights law. Most of Jeremy's classmates listened carefully to his argument. Some were persuaded, while others continued to believe that the current system was justified. Two audience members disagreed so strongly with Jeremy that instead of listening, they wrote notes back and forth to each other throughout the speech. Which of the following statements best describes the issues of ethical listening involved in this situation?
A) The people who listened carefully to Jeremy's arguments were ethical listeners, regardless of whether they were persuaded.
B) Everyone in the class was an ethical listener because no one interrupted Jeremy or prevented him from speaking.
C) All of these choices.
D) The two classmates who refused to listen to Jeremy's speech and wrote notes back and forth violated the guidelines for ethical listening.
E) The people who listened carefully to Jeremy's arguments were ethical listeners, regardless of whether they were persuaded and the two classmates who refused to listen to Jeremy's speech and wrote notes back and forth violated the guidelines for ethical listening.

E

Jerome found several excellent sources for his informative speech. He pulled key information from them, blended those ideas into his own perspective, and cited his sources when he presented the speech. Which of the following statements best describes this situation?
A) Jerome is ethical because he cited his sources and used them to develop his own slant on the topic.
B) Jerome is ethical because he did not copy his speech from a single source.
C) Jerome is guilty of incremental plagiarism because he used quotations and paraphrases from other people in his speech.
D) Jerome is guilty of global plagiarism because he did not develop his speech entirely from his own knowledge and experience.
E) Jerome is guilty of patchwork plagiarism because he used ideas from several different sources in his speech.

A

Which of the following is recommended by your textbook as a way to avoid plagiarism?
A) Avoid citing quotations and paraphrases in your speech.
B) Get an early start on researching and preparing your speech.
C) Avoid using direct quotations from other people in your speech.
D) Make sure you include information from the library in your speech.
E) Try to use as few sources as possible in researching your speech.

B

Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way to steer clear of incremental plagiarism?
A) Avoid using direct quotations from other people in your speech.
B) Only use your original ideas so there is no risk of plagiarism.
C) Avoid citing sources that might make someone suspect plagiarism.
D) Avoid paraphrasing information from other people in your speech.
E) Cite the sources of all quotations and paraphrases in your speech.

E

Tanya went to the beach instead of staying in town and working on her speech. When she realized how soon the speech was due, she asked a friend who had already taken public speaking to loan her an old outline, which she used verbatim for her class speech. Which of the following statements best describes Tanya's actions?
A) Tanya is guilty of global plagiarism.
B) Tanya is ethical if she cites the friend whose speech she used.
C) Tanya is guilty of incremental plagiarism.
D) Tanya should have planned better, but she isn't guilty of plagiarism.
E) Tanya is guilty of patchwork plagiarism.

A

As a public speaker, you face ethical issues when
A) all of these choices.
B) organizing your speech.
C) a and b.
D) researching your speech.
E) selecting the topic for your speech.

A

The three guidelines for ethical listening discussed in your textbook are
A) listen attentively, take accurate notes, and avoid prejudging the speaker.
B) support free speech, avoid name-calling, and listen attentively.
C) avoid stereotyping the speaker, support free speech, and take accurate notes.
D) listen attentively, avoid prejudging the speaker, and support free speech.
E) take accurate notes, support free speech, and avoid name-calling.

D

For his informative speech, Douglas told his classmates how to get free food at a drive-through restaurant. Rather than focusing on legitimate deals, such as student discounts or coupons, Douglas talked about ways to trick employees into believing you had already paid for food when you had not. His instructor gave the speech a poor grade because it violated the ethical criteria for public speaking presented in your textbook. The major guideline Douglas violated was:
A) Avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language.
B) Make sure your goals are ethically sound.
C) Avoid plagiarism.
D) Be fully prepared for each speech.
E) Adapt to your audience's frame of reference.

B

Ryan Tompkins located three excellent sources for his persuasive speech. He copied long sections from each source word for word, strung them together with a few transitions, and mentioned the sources of his information in passing. Which of the following statements best describes Ryan's situation?
A) Ryan is guilty of incremental plagiarism.
B) Ryan is guilty of global plagiarism.
C) Ryan is ethical because he mentioned the sources of his information.
D) Ryan is ethical because he did research for his speech.
E) Ryan is guilty of patchwork plagiarism.

E

All of the following are presented in your textbook as guidelines for ethical speechmaking except
A) avoid name calling and other forms of abusive language.
B) make sure your goals are ethically sound.
C) be fully prepared for each speech.
D) be honest in what you say.
E) explain your credibility on the speech topic.

E

In public speaking, sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against
A) a socially accepted code of legal rules.
B) the speaker's strategic objectives.
C) the frame of reference of the audience.
D) a set of ethical guidelines or standards.
E) the personal opinions of the speaker.

D

When Susan attended the first discussion section for her math class and heard her instructor begin speaking with an unfamiliar accent, she immediately decided, "I won't learn anything from this teacher." Susan failed to uphold which guideline for ethical listening?
A) Listen attentively.
B) Avoid name-calling.
C) Take accurate notes.
D) Avoid prejudging the speaker.
E) Support free speech.

D

Giving excessive attention to the details of a speech is an example of
A) focusing on delivery.
B) listening too hard.
C) listening for technique.
D) jumping to conclusions.
E) giving in to distractions.

B

As Jenell listened to her classmate's speech explaining the differences between collision insurance and comprehensive insurance, it reminded her that she needed to pay her insurance bill before the end of the day. Then, rather than listening to the speaker, she started thinking about all the other things she had to do that day. According to your textbook, the primary cause of Jenell's poor listening is
A) personalizing the topic.
B) not concentrating.
C) listening too hard.
D) being distracted by external interference.
E) focusing on the speaker's topic.

B

Which of the following is included among the four major causes of poor listening discussed in your textbook?
A) trying to remember everything the speaker says and jumping to conclusions about the speaker's ideas
B) all of these choices
C) taking written notes while the speech is in progress
D) jumping to conclusions about the speaker's ideas
E) trying to remember everything the speaker says

A

Fletcher is listening for pleasure as a friend discusses her trip to Australia. According to your textbook, Fletcher is engaged in _____________ listening.
A) receptive
B) appreciative
C) comprehensive
D) empathic
E) personal

B

Alena is listening to a speaker's evidence during a speech on genetically modified foods. According to your textbook, Alena should be asking:
A) Is the evidence consistent with the speaker's delivery?
B) Is the evidence from objective sources and relevant to the speaker's claims?
C) Is the evidence relevant to the speaker's claims?
D) all of these choices.
E) Is the evidence from objective sources?

B

Mary Garcia is listening to her meteorology professor explain how to interpret images from Doppler radar. Because Mary's goal is to understand the information being presented, she is engaged in ____________ listening.
A) appreciative
B) critical
C) comprehensive
D) attentive
E) empathic

C

Mark is listening to a speaker's evidence during a persuasive speech on nuclear power. According to your textbook, Mark should be asking:
A) Is the evidence taken from objective sources?
B) Is the evidence sufficient to support the speaker's claims?
C) Is the evidence sufficient to support the speaker's claims and relevant to the speaker's claims?
D) all of these choices.
E) Is the evidence relevant to the speaker's claims?

D

People spend more time _______________ than in any other communication activity.
A) listening
B) discussing
C) reading
D) writing
E) speaking

A

Sarah is listening to her roommate to provide emotional support in a time of distress. According to your textbook, Sarah is engaged in _________________ listening.
A) personal
B) critical
C) comprehensive
D) empathic
E) appreciative

D

Margaret is passionately committed to animal rights. At an evening lecture required for her biology class, she learned that the title of the speaker's talk was "The Importance of Animal Experimentation to Medical Advances." Offended and sure that the speaker had nothing ethical or interesting to say, Margaret paid no attention at all during the lecture. According to your textbook, the primary cause of Margaret's poor listening was
A) focusing on the speaker's topic.
B) poor concentration.
C) jumping to conclusions.
D) being distracted by external interference.
E) spare "brain time."

C

Your textbook recommends _____________ as the most effective method of note taking for listening to a speech.
A) using the Harvard listening system
B) creating a key-word outline
C) making a full-sentence outline
D) writing down a speaker's most interesting ideas
E) trying to write down everything a speaker says

B

Natasha and Ramone are listening to a realtor who is encouraging them to buy a house they looked at earlier in the day. As they listen, they are trying to decide whether or not to purchase the house. According to your textbook, Natahsa and Ramone are engaged in _____________ listening.
A) comprehensive
B) appreciative
C) critical
D) empathic
E) intimate

C

Matt's political science professor announces that next week there will be a guest lecture by peace activist Rachel Phelps entitled "The History of War, the Prospects for Peace." Matt decides to skip class that day, saying to himself, "What can a peace activist possibly tell me about war?" What aspect of poor listening identified in your textbook is Matt exhibiting in this example?
A) suspending judgment
B) jumping to conclusions
C) giving in to distractions
D) failing to concentrate
E) rejecting the speaker's frame of reference

B

Which of the following is recommended by your textbook as a way to improve your listening?
A) Pay close attention to feedback from other listeners.
B) Do not take written notes as the speech is in progress.
C) Suspend judgment until you hear all the speaker has to say.
D) Concentrate solely on the speaker's gestures and eye contact.
E) Try to remember everything the speaker says.

C

What does your textbook say is the first step to improving your listening skills?
A) suspend judgment until the end of the speech
B) learn to empathize with the speaker
C) take listening seriously
D) resist distractions during a speech
E) focus on the speaker's message

C

According to your textbook, skilled listeners do not try to absorb a speaker's every word. Rather, they focus on three major aspects of a speech. Those aspects include
A) main points.
B) technique.
C) all of these choices.
D) evidence.
E) main points and evidence.

C

Brian's fraternity is deciding whether to become alcohol free. On the evening of the vote, speakers present arguments on both sides of the issue. Because Brian has to decide whether to accept or reject the proposed policy, he is engaged in _______________ listening.
A) appreciative
B) critical
C) intimate
D) emphatic
E) comprehensive

B

When listening for a speaker's evidence, you should keep an ear out for its
A) objectivity.
B) relevance.
C) sufficiency.
D) accuracy.
E) all of these choices.

E

Which of the following is one of the four major causes of poor listening discussed in your textbook?
A) focusing on a speaker's appearance or delivery
B) taking key-word notes during a speech
C) concentrating on a speaker's evidence and reasoning
D) suspending judgment about a speaker's ideas
E) listening empathically rather than critically

A

When business managers are asked to list the communication skills most crucial to their job, they usually rank ______________ number one.
A) critical thinking
B) public speaking
C) conversation
D) writing
E) listening

E

As Amanda analyzed the audience for her speech about organic foods, she focused on such things as their gender, age, and cultural background. In doing so, she was engaging in __________________ audience analysis.
A) preliminary
B) situational
C) psychological
D) descriptive
E) demographic

E

The major advantage of using fixed-alternative questions in an audience analysis questionnaire is that they
A) produce clear, unambiguous answers.
B) require that respondents give truthful answers.
C) get below the surface of respondents' beliefs.
D) enhance the credibility of the questionnaire.
E) give respondents maximum leeway in answering.

A

To say that people usually want to hear about things that are meaningful to them is to say that people are
A) egalitarian.
B) egotistic.
C) empathic.
D) egocentric.
E) eclectic.

D

ou are giving a speech on a community building project to a local service organization at its monthly luncheon. Dessert dishes are being cleared away as you walk into the overcrowded, overheated room. The most important situational factor to consider when adapting to your audience would probably be the
A) education of your audience.
B) age of your audience.
C) audience's attitude toward you.
D) gender of your audience.
E) physical setting for your speech.

E

A landlord with a bad reputation among students for her high rent, deceptive advertising, and refusal to return security deposits is speaking to a campus group about how the city's new zoning law will affect students. The most important factor the landlord should consider in her situational audience analysis is probably her listeners'
A) gender.
B) interest in the topic.
C) knowledge of the topic.
D) disposition toward the speaker.
E) cultural background.

D

The _______________ will usually dictate how long a speech should be.
A) physical setting
B) size of the audience
C) occasion
D) topic
E) general purpose

C

Audience adaptation is an important factor in which of the following steps of the speechmaking process?
A) formulating a specific purpose
B) formulating a specific purpose and writing an introduction and conclusion
C) writing an introduction and conclusion
D) all of these choices
E) choosing visual aids

D

According to your textbook, what are the three primary factors to consider when assessing an audience's disposition toward a speech topic?
A) size, occasion, and group membership
B) background, situation, and gender
C) knowledge, interest, and attitude
D) interest, background, and age
E) gender, knowledge, and opinions

C

Audience analysis is an important factor in which of the following?
A) organizing the speech
B) all of these choices
C) selecting a topic
D) selecting a topic and choosing supporting materials
E) choosing supporting materials

B

What are the two types of audience analysis discussed in your textbook?
A) occupational and educational
B) demographic and situational
C) personal and impersonal
D) psychological and sociological
E) descriptive and analytical

B

If you were constructing an audience-analysis questionnaire and wanted to learn why some of your listeners do not fasten their seatbelts every time they ride in a motor vehicle, which of the following would be the best kind of question to ask?
A) open-ended question
B) scale question
C) fixed-alternative question
D) leading question
E) demographic question

A

As the size of your audience increases, your presentation should usually become more
A) punctual.
B) extemporaneous.
C) flexible.
D) informal.
E) formal.

E

Michael is preparing a persuasive speech for class in opposition to gun control. The most important factor for Michael to consider when analyzing his audience is probably its
A) attitude toward the topic.
B) disposition toward the speaker.
C) knowledge of the topic.
D) religious beliefs.
E) cultural background.

A

Nathan plans to give a speech to his classmates explaining how to encrypt data on their computers to remain safe from hackers. The most important factor he should consider when analyzing his audience is probably its
A) group membership.
B) disposition toward the occasion.
C) cultural background.
D) attitude toward the speaker.
E) knowledge about the topic.

E

The primary purpose of speechmaking is to
A) gain a desired response from listeners.
B) gain experience as a speaker.
C) display the speaker's knowledge.
D) learn more about the speech topic.
E) try out new ideas with an audience.

A

If you were giving a persuasive speech to a general audience on the issue of illegal immigration, the most important factor to consider when analyzing your audience would probably be its
A) gender.
B) education.
C) sexual orientation.
D) size.
E) ethnic background.

E

In her speech introduction, Kailyn asked, "Have you ever looked through old family photo albums and laughed at what people were wearing? Have you ever been amused by the bright colors, huge lapels, and crazy ties worn by characters in old TV shows? Like many of you I've noticed the changes in fashion and feared that my effort to look stylish today may eventually be a source of amusement to my future children." According to your textbook, by seeking to create a bond with her audience through emphasizing their common experiences and fears, Kailyn was engaging in
A) ethnocentrism.
B) inclusion.
C) comparison.
D) identification.
E) stereotyping.

D

If you were constructing an audience-analysis questionnaire and wanted to learn the strength of your listeners' attitudes for or against animal research, which of the following would be the best kind of question to ask?
A) open-ended question
B) leading question
C) fixed-alternative question
D) demographic question
E) scale question

E

The following question from a student audience-analysis questionnaire is an example of what type of question?
The percent of the U.S. population who speak Spanish in their homes is closest to
___ 5%
___ 10%
___ 20%
___ 30%
A) open-ended question
B) scale question
C) leading question
D) fixed-alternative question
E) demographic question

D

If you were giving a persuasive speech to a general audience arguing that all children should be required to use standard English in the public schools, the most important factor to consider in audience analysis would probably be
A) the physical setting for the speech.
B) the age of the audience.
C) the size of the audience.
D) the time of day for the speech.
E) the ethnic background of the audience.

E

Who's Who of American Women is an example of a(n)
A) biographical aid.
B) periodical index.
C) encyclopedia.
D) special dictionary.
E) yearbook.

A

When taking research notes, you should
A) none of these choices.
B) take all notes as direct quotations.
C) all of these choices.
D) put all notes from each source on a single index card or sheet of paper.
E) record notes only when you're sure you'll use the information in your speech.

A

Ivan has decided to give his persuasive speech on stem-cell research. Which of the following tips for doing research discussed in your textbook should he keep in mind as he works on the speech?
A) put all the information from each source on a single note.
B) include a subject heading on each note.
C) a and c only.
D) all of these choices.
E) use a different format for notes from Internet sources and library documents.

B

While doing research for his speech, Aaron was not able to identify the author of an Internet document titled "What Can and Cannot Be Patented." According to your textbook, what should Aaron do next to assess the credibility of the document?
A) Look up the year the document was published.
B) Try to determine the sponsoring organization for the document.
C) Search for the document in the library.
D) Make sure the document is on a news site.
E) Double check the accuracy of the document's URL.

B

According to your textbook, when preparing questions for a research interview, you should
A) all of these choices.
B) organize questions alphabetically by subject.
C) avoid questions you can answer without the interview and arrange questions in the order you want to ask them.
D) arrange questions in the order you want to ask them.
E) avoid questions you can answer without the interview.

C

According to your textbook, the three criteria for judging the reliability of documents located on the Internet are recency, authorship, and
A) sponsorship.
B) interactivity.
C) graphics.
D) creativity.
E) indexing.

A

When taking research notes, you should
A) put all the notes from each source on a single index card or sheet of paper.
B) record notes only when you're sure you'll use the information in your speech.
C) all of these choices.
D) distinguish among quotations, paraphrases, and your own ideas.
E) take only a few notes so you do not get too much information.

D

Periodical databases
A) catalog articles from a large number of journals and magazines.
B) all of these choices.
C) catalog articles from a large number of journals and magazines and often provide abstracts and full texts of journal and magazine articles.
D) are valuable for locating materials in encyclopedias and other reference works.
E) often provide abstracts and full texts of journal and magazine articles.

C

Travis wanted to use a virtual library to find reliable, high-quality Web resources for his speech on migraine headaches. According to your textbook, what would be a good source for Travis to use?
A) Wikipedia
B) ProQuest
C) MedGuide
D) Librarian's Internet Index
E) Google

D

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