muscle, muscular system Study Guide

141 terms by HOPESCM

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____ are straplike muscles of uniform width whose fascicles all run in the same direction.

parallel muscles

A/An ____ muscle of the hand has both its orgin and insertion with in the hand.

intrinsic

A smile is produced by contraction of the ____ muscle(s)

zygomaticus

the ____ muscles pull the skin of the chin upwars

mentalis

All of the following are intrinsic muscles of the head except

the sternocleidomastoid

all of the following produce chewing movements of the mandible except

the masseter

which of the following is an extensor of the neck?

semipinalis capitis

the word hallucis in the name of a muscle pertains to

the great toe

the deepest muscle of the abdominal wall is the

transversus abdominis

all of the following belong to the triceps surae of the calf except

the tibialis posterior muscle

which of these muscles helps to open the mouth (depress the mandible)

digastric

the ____ acts synergistically with the masseter to elevate the mandible

zygomaticus major

the ____ originates on the zygomatic arch and inserts on the angle of the mandible.

masseter

which of the follow muscles is not below the knee?

psoas major

the prominent tendons you can palpate at the popliteal fossa arise from

the hamstring muscles

crossing your legs while sitting employs mainly

the sartorius

the longest muscles of the human body is

the satorius

The calcaneal (achilles) tendons arises from

the gastrocnemius and soleus

Which of the following muscles does not insert on the tibia or fibula?

tibialis anterior

Which of the following is not a muscles of the buttocks?

vastus intermedius

You have just played a stunning violin concerto, the audience is wild with applause, and you take a deep bow, using your

iliopsoas muscles

Which of the following flexes the thigh?

rectus femoris

The quadriceps femoris includes all the following muscles parts except

the vatus femoris

The ___ is one of the hamstring muscles on the posterior side of the thigh

semimembranosus

Which of the following msucles produces plantar flexion of the foot?

soleus

Which of the following muscles is bipennate?

the rectus femoris

In skeletal muscles, groups of muscles cells are called___ and are surrounded by a connective tissue sheath call the ____.

fascicles; perimysium

The biceps brachii is connected to the scapula by collagenous fibers of the epimysium called the _____, and this attachment represents the ____ of the biceps brachii.

tendons;origin

the rectus abdominis is a(n) ____ muscle, while the rectus femoris is a(n)____ muscle.

parallel; bipennate

Which of the following muscles are not part of the rotator cuff?

teres major

Lumborum mean ____, while brachii means____.

of the lower back; of the arm

The frontalis muscle is connected to the occiptalis muscles by a(n)

aponeurosis

The muscles of the cheek, which function in blowing, sucking, and chewing are called the _____ muscles.

buccinator

The principle flexors of the neck are the

sterncleidomastoid and scalenus

The muscular dome between the abdominal and thoracic cavity is the

Diaphragm

Which of the following muscles flexes the vertebral column>

rectus abdominis

your hamstring muscles, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae are contracting in the sequence listed. You are most likely

Straightening up after touching your toes

the muscle that laterally roate and depress the scapula, as in shrugging and lowering the shoulders, are the

trapezius and serratus anterior

The four rotator cuff muslces are examples of

synergists

The principle flexors of the forearm are the

biceps brachii and coracobrachialis

On the posterior side of the hand you can notice four tendon sheaths around four tendons attaching to all of your digits except the tumb. These tendons all come from the same muscles called the

extensor digitorum

This large muscles originates on the ilium and sacrum, inserts on the distal femur and its actions is to extend the thigh

gluteus maximus

If the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon was cut, which muscles action would be afftected the most?

leg extension

Which of the following is/are voluntary muscle?

skeletal muscle

The series elastic componentes of a muscle include all of the following except

the myofilaments

the triads of a muscle fiber consist of

two terminal cisternae and a T tubule

Each end of a sarcomere is marked by a

a Z disc

synaptic vesicles are found in

the synaptic knob

The brigh red color of skeletal muscles is due mainly to its

myoglobin

During the time that a muscle is shortening but maintaining constant tension, it is undergoing

isotonic contraction

the region of a sarcomere where actin and myosin overlap is

The A band

When there is not enough oxygen to create ATP by aerobic respiration,a muscle fiber can prodice ATP by borrowing phosphate groups from

creatine phosphate

Red slow-twich mmuscle fibers get their name from the fact theat they contain more ____ and les ___ than whit fast-twich fibers.

myoglobin; glycogen

Which of these processes ocurs during the contraction of skeletal muscle?

Z discs move closer together

oxygen debt is the amount of extra oxygen needed after an exercise to do all of the following except

lower the metabolic rate to a resting level

Creatine kinase

catalyzes the transfer of phosphate from CP to ADP

In contrast to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle has all of the following properties except

a more extensive sarcoplasmic

The role of calmodulin in smooth muscles is

to bind calcium ions

Muscles contraction and relaxation require ATP for all of the following steps excepts

release of Ca2+ into the sarcolemma

In constrast to red muscle fibers, white fibers

have more capillaries

When a muscles develops increased ension, but does not change in length, it is said to exhibit

isometric contraction

The loss of muscles mass from disuse is called

Atrophy

Posture is maintained mainly by _____ fibers because the fatigue____.

slow twitch; slowly

Endurance training favors all of the following changes in the skeletal muscles except

less reliance on fat as an energy source

A motor unit is

one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers innervated by it

In smooth muscle, the calcium needed for contraction comes mainly from

the extracellular fluid

if a poison inhibits the activity of acetylcholinesterase, a muscle

may be unable to relax

The strength of a muscle depends on all of the following factors except

the length of its sarcomeres

When smooth muscles exhibits dual innervation, it

is supplied by both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers

the fibrous tissue that surrounds each muscle cell or fiber is called ____ and its function is to

endomysium; insulate adjacent muscle cells from one another

The outer membrane around the muscle cell or fiber is called the ____, while the tunnel-like infoldings of the outer membrane form part of the triad called the ____.

sarcolemma; transverse tubules

The sarcoplasmic reiculum stores ____ ions and forms dilated sacs alongside transverse (T) tubules called the____.

calcium; terminal cisternae

In skeletal muscle fibers, Ca2+ bind to

troponin

In skeletal muscles, the light nacnds are called ____ and they contain

I bands; actin

the distance from one Z disc to the next is called the ___ and it ___ during contraction.

sarcomere, shortens

At the neuromuscular junction, ACh release into the synaptic cleft is rapidly destroyed by

acetylcholinesterase

The resting potential across the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscles cells is about____ millivolts (mV).

-70

In an action potential, the ____ voltage regulated gates open first followed by the ____ voltage regulated gates opening.

sodium; potassium

in a resting muscle, most of the ATP generated by aerobic respiration comes from

fatty acids

the movement of your fingers is controlled by muscles shich have a greated proportion

fast glycolytic finers with small motor units

You prefer white meat to red meat in your turkey dinner. Which of the following characteristics would not correctly describe the fibers in the white meat?

aerobic respiration

Drugs called calcium channel blockes may be used to lower blood pressure by causeing arteries to vasodilate. These drugs

prevent calcium from entering smooth muscle and causes the muscle to relax

Lifting a box off the floor unto a table is called a ___ contraction of your biceps brachii while lowering the box onto the floor is called a ____ conraction of your biceps brachii

concentric; eccentric

Which of the following supports the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction?

The distance between Z lines decreases during contraction

Epimysium

Connective tissue layer surrounding an individual muscle

Perimysuim

connective tissue that surrounds fascicle

Fascicles

bundles of muscle fibers wrapped in perimysium

endomysium

fine sheath of connective tissue composed of reticular fibers surrounding each muscle fiber

motor unit

A motor neuron and all the all the skeletal muscle cells it innervates. Large motor units are typically found in large muscles (e.g., the thighs and buttocks) and produce fross movements. Small motor untis are found in smaller muscles (e.g. the rectus muscles that controle movements of the eyeball, the fingers) and produce more precise movements.

synergists

muscle groups that aid movement of prime mover muscles and prevent unwanted movement across intermediate joints.

fixators

Muscle that immobilizes one or more bones, allowing other muscles to act from a stable base.

anatagonists

muscle that opposes the prime mover

threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.

recruitment

the stimulation of additional motor units in the muscles

maximum contraction

The stimulation of all motor units in the muscle, continuous stimulation until all motor units are recruited; therefore all muscle fibers contract

sarcolemma

an extensible membrane enclosing the contractile substance of a muscle fiber

sarcoplasm

the cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber

myofibril

the structure within the muscle fibers that shorten to cause skeletal muscle fiber contraction.
-Thick (myosin) filament
-Thin (actin tropomyosin, and troponin) filament

Sarcomere

the basic contractile unit of striated muscle; the segment of a myofibril between two adjacent z-lines

A band

The band of the sarcomere that extends the full length of the thick filament. The A band includes regions of thick and thin filament overlap, as well as a region of thick filament only. A bands alternate with I bands to give skeletal and cardiac muscle a striated apperance. The A band does not shorten during muscle contraction; anisotropic

I band

The region of the sarcomere made up only of thin filaments. The I band is bisected by a Z line. I bands alternate with A bands to give skeletal and cardiac muscle a striated appearance. I bands get shorter (and may disappear completely) during muscle contraction.

H zone

The region at the center of an A band of a sarcomere that is made up of myosin only. The H zone gets shorter (and may disappear) during muscle contraction; lighter region in each dark A Bands midsection; each is bisected vertically by dark line called M Line

M line

region in center of H zone that contains proteins that hold thick filaments together at center of sarcomere

Z line

A dark thin protein band to which actin filaments are attached in a striated muscle fiber, marking the boundaries between adjacent sarcomeres.

sarcoplasmic reticulum

stores and releases calcium into sarcoplasm after nervous stimulation

terminal cisternae

enlarged areas of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) surrounding the transverse tubules, which store calcium for release at the start of muscle contraction; makes up the triad

transverse (T) tubules

narrow tubes that are continuous with the sarcolemma and extend into the sarcoplasm at right angles to the cell surface; filled with extracellular fluid; form passage way through the muscle fiber; makes up the triad

tendon

a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone

Muscles of facial expression

epicranius (occipitofrontalis)
nasalis
orbicularis oculi
orbicularis oris
risorius
zygomaticus major
zygomaticus min
buccinator
platysma

Muscles of mastication

masseter
temporalis
lateral pterygoid
medial pterygoid

Muscles that move head and neck

sternocleidmastoid
trapezius (superior part)
scalenes (anterior, middle, and posterior)
splenius capitis
semispinalis capitis

Muscles that move hyoid bone and larynx

suprahyoid muscles
-digastric (anterior, posterior belly)
-stylohyoid
-mylohyoid
infrahyoid muscles
-sternohyoid
-omohyoid (superior, inferior belly)
-sternohyoid
-thryrohyoid

occipitofrontalis-frontal belly

Scalp muscles
Orgin: eipcranial aponeurosis
insertion: skin superior to supraorbital margin
Action: draws scalp anteriorly; raises eyebrows and wrinkles skin of forehead horizontally

occupital belly- back of the head

Scalp muscles
Orgin: occipital bone and mastoid process of temporal bone
Insertion: epicarnial aponeurosis
Action: draws scalp posteriorly

oribcularis oris

mouth muscle
Orgin: muscle fibers surrounding opeing of mouth
Insertion: skin at the corners of mouth
Actioncloses and protides lips; compresses lips against teeth, and shapes lips during speech

zygomatius major

mouth muscle
Orgin: zygomatic bone
Insertion: skin at the angle of mouth and orbicularis oris
:Action: draws angle of mouth superiorly and laterally, as in smiling or laughing

zygomatius minor

mouth muscle
Orgin: zygomatic bone
Insertion:upper lip
Action: rasies upper lip, exposing maxillary teeth

depressor labil superioris

Mouth Muscle
Orgin: superior to infraorbital foramen of maxilla
Insertion:skin at the angle of mouth and orbicularis oris
Action: rasies upper lip

depressor labil inferiors

mouth muscle
Orgin: mandible
Insertion: skin or lower lip
Action: depresses (lowers) lower lip

sepressor anguil oris

mouth muscles
Orgin: Mandible
Insertion: angle of mouth
Action: drws of mouth laterally and inferiorly as in opening mouth

Buccinator

mouth muscles
Orgin: aveolar processes of maxilla and mandible and pterygomandibular rapehe Insertion: orbicularis oris
Action:presses checks against teeth and lips for whistling, blowing, and sucking; and assists in mastication (chewing) by keeping food bewteen the teeth and not between teeth and cheeks

risorius

mouth muscles
Orgin: fascia over parotis salivary gland
Insertion: skin at angle of mouth
Action: draws angle of mouth laterally as in tenseness

Mentalis

mouth muscle:
Orgin: Mandible
Insertion: skin of Chin
Action Elevates and prtrudes lower lip and pulls skin of chin up, as in pouting

platysma

Neck Muscle
Orgin: fascia over deltoid and pectoralis major muscles
Insertion: mandible, muscles around angle of mouth, and skin of lower face
Action: draws outer part of lower lip inferiorly and posterior as in pouting; depresses mandible

orbicularis oculi

Orbit and eyebrow muscle
Orgin: medial wall of orbit
Insertion: circular path around orbit
Action: closes eye

corrugator supercilli

Orbit and eyebrow muscle
Orgin: medial end of supercillary arch of frontal bone
Insertion: skin of the eyebrow
Action:draws eyebrow inferiorly and winkles skin of forehead vertically as in frowning

Levator palpebrae superioris

Orbit and eyebrow muscle
Orgin:roof of orbit (lesser wing of sphenoid bone)
Insertion: skin of upper eyelid
Action: elevates upper eyelid (opens eye)

Superior rectus

Muscles of the Eye
Orgin: common tendinous ring (attached to orbit around optic foramen)
Insertion: superior and central part of eyeball
Action: moves eyeball superiorly (elevation) and medially (adduction) and rotates it laterally

inferior retus

Muscles of the Eye
Orgin: common tendinous ring (attached to orbit around optic foramen)
Insertion: inferior and central part of the eye
Action: moves eyeball inferiorly (depression) and medially (adduction) and rotates it laterally

Lateral rectus

Muscles of the Eye
Orgin: common tendinous ring (attached to orbit around optic foramen)
Insertion: lateral side of eyeball
Action: moves eyeball laterally

Medial recrus

Muscles of the Eye
Orgin: common tendinous ring (attached to orbit around optic foramen)
Insertion: medial sides of eyeball
Action: moves eyeball medially

superior oblique

Muscles of the Eye
Orgin: Sphenoid bone, superior and medail to the tendinous ring in the orbit
Insertion: eyeball between superior and lateral recti. The muscles inserts into the superior and lateral surfaces of the eyeball via a tendon that passes through the trochlea
Action: moves eyeball inferiorly (depression) and laterally (abduction), and rotates it

Inferior oblique oblique

Muscles of the Eye
Orgin: maxilla in floor of orbit
Insertion: eyeball between inferior and later recti
Action: moves eyeball superiorly (elevation) and laterally (abduction) and rotates it laterally

masseter

Muscles that move Mandible
Orgin: maxilla and zygomatic arch
Insertion: angle and ramus of mandible
Action: elevates mandible, as in closing mouth, and retracts (draws back) mandible

temporalis

Muscles that move Mandible
Orgin: temporal bone
Insertion: coronoid prcess and ramus of mandible
Action: elevates and retracts mandible

Medial Pterygoyd

Muscles that move Mandible
Orgin: medial surface of lateral portion of pterygoid process of sphenoid bone; maxilla
Insertion: angle and ramus of mandible
Action: elevates and protracts (portudes) mandible and moves mandible from side to side

Lateral pterygoid

Muscles that move Mandible
Orgin: greater wing and lateral surface of lateral portion of pterygoid process of sphenoid bone
Insertion: condyle of mandible; tempro-mandibular joint
Action: protracts and depresses mandible and moves mandible from side to side

genlogssus

Muscles that move the tongue
Orgin: mandible
Insertion: undersurface of tongue and hyoid
Action: depresses tongue and thrust it anteriorly

styloglossus

Muscles that move the tongue
Orgin: styloid process of temporal bone
Insertion: side and undersurface of tongue
Action: Elevates tongue and draws it posteriorly (retraction)

palatoglossus

Muscles that move the tongue
Orgin: anterior surface of soft palate
Insertion: side of tongue
Action: elvates posterior portion of tongue and draws soft palate down on tongue

hyoglossus

Muscles that move the tongue
Orgin: greater horn and body of hyoid bone
Insertion: side of tongue
Action: depresses tongue and draws down its sides

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