Psychology Final Exam-Chapter 9 Terms

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______ discovered the principle of classical conditioning.
(9.1)
A) John B. Watson
B) Edward Tolman
C) B.F. Skinner
D) Ivan Pavlov

D

Ivan Pavlov used the term unconditioned to refer to . . .
(9.1)

A)
. . . the process in which reinforcement is used to sculpt new responses out of old ones.


B)
. . . a stimulus or event that increases the likelihood that behavior will be repeated.


C)
. . . learning from the consequences of behavior.


D)
. . . stimuli and the automatic, involuntary responses they caused.

D

The dog in Ivan Pavlov's experiments started to salivate when it heard the sound of a tuning fork.
The salivating by the dog is ______ .
(9.1)
A) a conditioned response.
B) a conditioned stimulus.
C) an unconditioned response.
D) an unconditioned stimulus.

A

In classical conditioning, generalization refers to . . .
(9.1)

A)
. . . the reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction.


B)
. . . the ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli.


C)
. . . the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response.


D)
. . . responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli.

D

Operant conditioning can be defined in any of these ways except . . .
Select the definition that is false.
(9.2)

A)
It is a form of learning closely associated with the Behaviorist psychologist B.F. Skinner.


B)
It occurs when a person or animal operates on or causes some change in the environment.


C)
It uses modeling to achieve learning.


D)
It is the study of how voluntary behavior is affected by its consequences.

C

When teaching a dog a trick, we use treats as . . .
(9.2)

A)
. . . part of the response chain.


B)
. . . a positive reinforcement to operant conditioning.


C)
. . . a neutral stimulus in classical conditioning.


D)
. . . a secondary reinforcement to operant conditioning.

B

Slot machines represent what type of reinforcement schedule ?
(9.2)
A) variable-interval schedule
B) fixed-ratio schedule
C) variable-ratio schedule
D) fixed-interval schedule

C

If a child has a tantrum because he doesn't want to go to sleep, and the parents allow the child to stay awake, ______ has occurred.
(9.2)
A) escape conditioning
B) classical conditioning
C) aversive control
D) modeling

A

A dolphin that has been taught to search for undersea mines demonstrates what kind of learning?
(9.2)
A) shaping
B) avoidance conditioning
C) social learning
D) classical conditioning

A

Disadvantages of using aversive stimuli (punishment) to change behavior include all these, except . . .
Select the statement that is false.
(9.2)

A)
Aversive stimuli can produce unwanted side effects.


B)
People learn to avoid the person delivering the aversive consequences.


C)
Punishment is likely to suppress, rather than eliminate, inappropriate behavior.


D)
Punishment usually leads to the increase, or repetition, of the inappropriate behavior.

D

Each of these statements are true, except . . .
Select the statement that is false.
(9.3)

A)
Behavior modification uses learning principles to change people's actions or feelings.


B)
Latent learning and learned helplessness are both examples of modeling.


C)
Social learning involves how people make decisions and act upon the information available to them.


D)
Social learning consists of cognitive learning and modeling.

B

Modeling includes these types of learning: ______ .
Select only one letter.
(9.3)
A)
observational learning and learned helplessness

B)
observational learning and disinhibition

C)
latent learning and learned helplessness

D)
latent learning and imitation

B

Latent learning is characterized by each of these, except . . .
Select the statement that is false.
(9.3)

A)
It leads to depression and a sense of helplessness.


B)
It is not immediately observable as a change in behavior at the time of learning.


C)
It uses a cognitive map.


D)
It is not usually reinforced when learning occurs.

C

Computer-assisted instruction breaks instruction down into "frames."
Each time a student shows that he or she has learned the information in a frame, the student is given positive reinforcement in the form of new information.
This is an example of ______ .
(9.3)
A) operant conditioning
B) token economy
C) cognitive map
D) behavior modification

A

An example of a token economy would be . . .
(9.3)

A)
. . . a player being rewarded coins from a slot machine.


B)
. . . a rat being rewarded a food pellet when it presses down on a bar.


C)
. . . a chimpanzee's learned behavior being rewarded with poker chips with which it can buy peanuts.


D)
. . . a dog salivating when it hears a tuning fork.

C

Behavior modification works best, psychologists believe, when people set up their own set of rewards and punishments to shape their thoughts and actions.
This agreement with oneself is called ______ .
(9.3)
A) escape conditioning.
B) response chains.
C) aversive control.
D) a behavioral contract.

D

Classical conditioning is most reliable and effective when the conditioned stimulus is presented ______ the unconditioned stimulus.
(9.1)
A) a significant time after
B) just before
C) just after
D) a significant time before

B

Teaching a dog to salivate when it sees a square, but not to salivate when it sees a triangle is an example of ______ .
(9.1)
A) generalization
B) discrimination
C) aversion
D) extinction

B

According to the textbook, a conditioned emotion—such as fear—is a very difficult response to extinguish.
(9.1)
A) True
B) False

A

According to the textbook, which classical conditioning technique is proven to be effective in the treatment of bed-wetting?
(9.1)
A) Pavlov mittens
B) bell and pad
C) jelly ring pad
D) restraint belt

B

According to the classical conditioning theory of taste aversion, if you go to a restaurant and eat a meal of steak, salad, and dessert, and then later get sick, which food will you blame for making you sick?
(9.1)
A) You will blame whatever item is not one of your favorite foods.
B) You will blame the dessert because it is sweet to the tastebuds.
C) You will blame the steak because meat comes from animals and the animal must have been infected.
D) You will blame whatever item was a new food to you.
E) You will blame the salad because it is supposed to be healthy for you, but is not.

D

Select the description that is not one of the three innate emotional responses to stimuli that an infant has.
(9 CS)
A) happiness when given something to suck on
B) rage when arm or head movements are forcible restrained
C) fear at hearing a loud sound
D) love when stroked, patted, or rocked

A

Responses are more resistant to extinction when reinforced . . .
(9.2)

A)
. . . with a negative reinforcement rather than a positive reinforcement.


B)
. . . on a fixed schedule rather than a variable schedule.


C)
. . . with a positive reinforcement rather than a negative reinforcement.


D)
. . . on a variable schedule rather than a fixed schedule.

D

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