The MOST reliable sign of a head injury is:
a decreased level of consciousness.
The _________ nervous system consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves.
When caring for a patient with a possible head injury, it is MOST important to monitor the patient's:
level of consciousness.
You should be MOST suspicious that a patient has experienced a significant head injury if his or her pulse is:
Distraction injuries of the spine are MOST commonly the result of:
Which of the following statements regarding a basilar skull fracture is correct?
The absence of raccoon eyes or Battle's sign does not rule it out.
Lacerations to the scalp:
may be an indicator of deeper, more serious injuries.
Any unresponsive trauma patient should be assumed to have:
An accompanying spinal injury
The tough, fibrous outer meningeal layer is called the:
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to assess:
eye opening, verbal response, and motor response.
The meninges, along with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that circulates in between each meningeal layer, function by:
acting as a shock absorber for the brain and spinal cord.
An indicator of an expanding intracranial hematoma or rapidly progressing brain swelling is:
a rapid deterioration of neurologic signs.
In contrast to a cerebral concussion, a cerebral contusion:
involves physical injury to the brain tissue.
Common signs and symptoms of a serious head injury include all of the following, EXCEPT:
The body's functions that occur without conscious effort are regulated by the _________ nervous system.
The _________ is the best-protected part of the CNS and controls the functions of the cardiac and respiratory systems.
A. brain stem
Which of the following skull fractures would be the LEAST likely to present with palpable deformity or other outward signs?
It would be MOST appropriate to perform a focused secondary assessment on a patient who:
fainted and fell to the ground from a standing position.
The cervical spine is composed of _____ vertebrae.
A patient with a head injury presents with abnormal flexion of his extremities. What numeric value should you assign to him for motor response?
A tight-fitting motorcycle helmet should be left in place unless:
it interferes with your assessment of the airway.
During your primary assessment of a 19-year-old unconscious male who experienced severe head trauma, you note that his respirations are rapid, irregular, and shallow. He has bloody secretions draining from his mouth and nose. You should:
suction his oropharynx for up to 15 seconds.
Common signs of a skull fracture include all of the following, EXCEPT:
superficial scalp lacerations.
The _________ contain(s) about 75% of the brain's total volume.
An epidural hematoma is MOST accurately defined as:
bleeding between the skull and dura mater.
Coordination of balance and body movement is controlled by the:
Which of the following head injuries would cause the patient's condition to deteriorate MOST rapidly
When assessing a patient with a head injury, you note the presence of thin, bloody fluid draining from his right ear. This indicates:
rupture of the tympanic membrane following diffuse impact to the head
The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the:
Brain and Spinal Cord and is located in the Dorsal Cavity. The brain is Protected by the Skull, while the Spinal Cord is protected by the Vertebrae.
When placing a patient onto a long backboard, the EMT at the patient's _________ is in charge of all patient movements.
A patient who cannot remember the events that preceded his or her head injury is experiencing:
When the parasympathetic nervous system is activated:
the heart rate decreases and the blood vessels dilate.
During your primary assessment of a semiconscious 30-year-old female with closed head trauma, you note that she has slow, shallow breathing and a slow, bounding pulse. As your partner maintains manual in-line stabilization of her head, you should:
instruct him to assist her ventilations while you perform a rapid assessment.
Bleeding within the brain tissue itself is called a(n):
When activated, the sympathetic nervous system produces all of the following effects, EXCEPT:
Which of the following sets of vital signs depicts Cushing's triad?
BP, 190/110; pulse, 55; respirations, 30
Which of the following statements regarding secondary brain injury is correct?
Hypoxia and hypotension are the two most common causes of secondary brain injury.
The hormone responsible for the actions of the sympathetic nervous system is:
A 45-year-old male was working on his roof when he fell approximately 12′,landing on his feet. He is conscious and alert and complains of an ache in his lower back. He is breathing adequately and has stable vital signs. You should:
immobilize his spine and perform a focused secondary exam.
A temporary loss or alteration of part or all of the brain's abilities to function without physical damage to the brain MOST accurately describes a(n):
Pneumothorax is defined as:
accumulation of air in the pleural space.
You respond to a residence for a 40-year-old female who was assaulted by her husband; the scene has been secured by law enforcement. Upon your arrival, you find the patient lying supine on the floor in the kitchen. She is semiconscious with severely labored breathing. Further assessment reveals a large bruise to the left anterior chest, jugular venous distention, and unilaterally absent breath sounds. As your partner is supporting her ventilations, you should:
immediately request ALS support.
The MOST critical treatment for a tension pneumothorax involves:
inserting a needle through the rib cage into the pleural space.
A 28-year-old male was struck in the chest with a baseball bat during an altercation. He is conscious and alert and complains of severe chest pain. Your assessment reveals a large area of ecchymosis over the sternum and a rapid, irregular pulse. In addition to applying 100% oxygen, you should:
prepare for immediate transport.
A flail chest occurs when:
a segment of the chest wall is detached from the thoracic cage.
A spinal cord injury at the level of C7 would MOST likely result in:
paralysis of intercostal muscles
The ________ nerves control the diaphragm.
During your assessment of a patient with blunt chest trauma, you note paradoxical movement of the left chest wall. As your partner is administering oxygen to the patient, you should:
stabilize the chest wall with a bulky dressing.
You arrive at the scene of a major motor vehicle crash. The patient, a 50-year-old female, was removed from her vehicle prior to your arrival. Bystanders who removed her state that she was not wearing a seatbelt. The patient is unconscious, tachycardic, and diaphoretic. Your assessment reveals bilaterally clear and equal breath sounds, a midline trachea, and collapsed jugular veins. You should be MOST suspicious that this patient has experienced a:
Immediate death from blunt chest trauma following a motor vehicle crash is MOST often the result of:
traumatic aortic rupture.
A 19-year-old male is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless after being struck in the center of the chest with a softball. Based on the mechanism of injury, what MOST likely occurred?
ventricular fibrillation when the impact occurred during a critical portion of the cardiac cycle.
A 37-year-old male was pinned between a flatbed truck and a loading dock. On exam, you find bruising to the chest, distended neck veins, bilaterally diminished breath sounds, and bilateral scleral hemorrhaging. You should:
aggressively manage his airway
If a person's tidal volume decreases, but his or her respiratory rate remains unchanged:
minute volume will decrease
Patients with rib fractures will commonly:
breathe rapidly and shallowly
Following a stab wound to the left anterior chest, a 25-year-old male presents with a decreased level of consciousness and signs of shock. Which of the following additional assessment findings should increase your index of suspicion for a cardiac tamponade?
A rapid, irregular pulse following blunt trauma to the chest is MOST suggestive of a:
Common signs and symptoms of a chest injury include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Following blunt trauma to the chest, an 18-year-old female presents with respiratory distress, reduced tidal volume, and cyanosis. Her blood pressure is 80/50 mm Hg and her pulse is 130 beats/min and thready. You should:
provide some form of positive-pressure ventilation
A patient who presents with profound cyanosis following a chest injury:
requires prompt ventilation and oxygenation.
Signs and symptoms of a tension pneumothorax include all of the following, EXCEPT:
collapsed jugular veins.
You have sealed the open chest wound of a 40-year-old male who was stabbed in the anterior chest. Your reassessment reveals that he is experiencing increasing respiratory distress and tachycardia, and is developing cyanosis. You should:
Pleural fluid is contained between the:
visceral and parietal pleurae.
You are transporting a stable patient with a possible pneumothorax. The patient is receiving 100% oxygen and has an oxygen saturation of 95%. During your reassessment, you find that the patient is now confused, hypotensive, and profusely diaphoretic. What is MOST likely causing this patient's deterioration?
Subcutaneous emphysema is an indication that:
air is escaping into the chest wall from a damaged lung.
The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by the:
Which of the following organs or structures does NOT reside within the mediastinum?
Irritation or damage to the pleural surfaces that causes sharp chest pain during inhalation is called:
A spontaneous pneumothorax would MOST likely occur as the result of:
exertion of a person with a congenital lung defect.
An open pneumothorax occurs when:
air enters the pleural space from outside the body.
While jogging, a 19-year-old male experienced an acute onset of shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain. He is conscious and alert with stable vital signs. Your assessment reveals that he has diminished breath sounds over the left side of the chest. You should:
administer oxygen and transport to the hospital
Hemoptysis is defined as:
coughing up blood.
Very young children tend to breathe predominantly with their diaphragm because:
their intercostal muscles are not fully developed.
Which of the following statements regarding abdominal trauma is correct?
The absence of abdominal pain does not rule out intra-abdominal bleeding.
Peritonitis, an intense inflammatory reaction of the abdominal cavity, usually occurs when:
hollow abdominal organs are damaged and spill their contents.
A 20-year-old male was accidentally shot in the right upper abdominal quadrant with an arrow during an archery contest. Prior to your arrival, the patient removed the arrow. Your assessment reveals that he is conscious and alert with stable vital signs. The entrance wound is bleeding minimally and appears to be superficial. You should:
assume that the arrow injured an internal organ
The presence of tachycardia following a significant abdominal injury:
should be assumed to be a sign of shock.
You are transporting a 42-year-old male who experienced blunt abdominal trauma. He is receiving oxygen at 12 L/min via a nonrebreathing mask, and full spinal precautions have been applied. During your reassessment, you note his level of consciousness has decreased and his respirations have become shallow. You should:
insert an airway adjunct if he will tolerate it and begin assisting his ventilations with a bag-mask device.
Because the depth of an open abdominal wound is often difficult to determine:
prompt transport to the hospital is essential.
During your assessment of a patient who experienced blunt trauma to the abdomen, you notice bruising around the umbilicus. This is a sign of:
Which of the following organs is at MOST risk for injury as the result of a pelvic fracture?
Following blunt abdominal trauma, a 30-year-old male complains of referred pain to the left shoulder. This finding is called the:
All of the following are hollow abdominal organs, EXCEPT for the:
While assessing a 21-year-old female who struck a tree head-on with her small passenger car, you note that her air bag deployed. You should:
lift the air bag and look for deformity to the steering wheel.
A 54-year-old male experienced an avulsion to his penis when his foreskin got caught in the zipper of his pants. He was able to unzip his pants and remove the foreskin prior to your arrival. Your assessment reveals that he is in severe pain and that the avulsion is bleeding moderately. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
applying direct pressure with a dry, sterile dressing
You are dispatched to a residence for a young female who was kicked in the abdomen by her boyfriend. While en route to the scene, you should ask the dispatcher if:
law enforcement is at the scene.
Which of the following organs would MOST likely bleed profusely when injured?
Which of the following statements regarding abdominal eviscerations is correct?
The protruding organs should be kept warm and moist.
A sign of kidney damage following blunt trauma is:
Early bruising following abdominal trauma often manifests as:
red areas of skin.
Your presence is requested by law enforcement to assess a 33-year-old female who was sexually assaulted. The patient is conscious and obviously upset. As you are talking to her, you note an impressive amount of blood on her clothes in the groin area. Her blood pressure is 98/58 mm Hg, her pulse is 130 beats/min, and her respirations are 24 breaths/min. You should:
control any external bleeding, administer oxygen, and transport at once
A 40-year-old male presents with severe abdominal pain following blunt trauma. He is diaphoretic, intensely thirsty, and has a weak and rapid pulse. Appropriate treatment for this patient includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
giving him small sips of plain water.
When a hollow organ is punctured during a penetrating injury to the abdomen:
peritonitis may not develop for several hours.
A football player was struck by another player in the right flank area just below the posterior rib cage. He complains of severe pain and point tenderness to the area. Your assessment reveals that there is a small amount of blood in his underwear. You should be MOST suspicious for
..., blunt injury to the kidney
A 66-year-old male presents with dark red rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. He is conscious and alert; however, his skin is cool and clammy and his heart rate is elevated. Further assessment reveals that his blood pressure is 112/60 mm Hg. Which of the following questions would be MOST pertinent to ask him?
Bruising to the right upper quadrant of the abdomen following blunt trauma is MOST suggestive of injury to the:
Air bags, in conjunction with properly worn seatbelts, are MOST beneficial when a person is involved in a:
..., head-on crash.
When worn properly, a seatbelt should lie:
..., below the anterior superior iliac spines of the pelvis and against the hip joints.
Contraction or tensing of the abdominal muscles in an effort to ease pain is called:
A 22-year-old male was punched in the abdomen several times. You find him lying on his left side with his knees drawn up. He is conscious and alert and complains of increased pain and nausea when he tries to straighten his legs. His blood pressure is 142/82 mm Hg, his pulse rate is 110 beats/min and strong, and his respirations are 22 breaths/min and regular. In addition to administering high-flow oxygen, you should:
You are transporting a patient with blunt abdominal trauma. The patient is unstable and is experiencing obvious signs and symptoms of shock. Your estimated time of arrival at the hospital is less than 10 minutes. After treating the patient appropriately, you should:
Accumulation of blood in the abdominal cavity will MOST likely cause:
A 76-year-old male experienced sudden pain to his left thigh when he was standing in line at the grocery store. Your assessment reveals ecchymosis and deformity to the distal aspect of his left femur, just above the knee. Distal circulation and sensory and motor functions are intact. The MOST appropriate method of splinting this injury involves:
Bone marrow produces:
You receive a call to a local gymnasium for a basketball player with a dislocated shoulder. Upon arrival, you find the patient, a 17-year-old male, sitting on the ground. He is holding his left arm in a fixed position away from his body. There is an obvious anterior bulge to the area of injury. You should:
..., assess distal pulse, motor, and sensory functions
In which of the following situations should the EMT splint an injured limb in the position of deformity?
..., if resistance is encountered or the patient experiences severe pain
The MOST reliable indicator of an underlying fracture is:
..., point tenderness
A 22-year-old female was ejected from her car after striking a tree head-on. As you approach her, you note obvious closed deformities to both of her femurs. She is not moving and does not appear to be conscious. You should:
Of the following musculoskeletal injuries, which is considered to be the LEAST severe?
..., nondisplaced pelvic fracture
A 54-year-old male accidentally shot himself in the leg while cleaning his gun. Your assessment reveals a small entrance wound to the medial aspect of his right leg. The exit wound is on the opposite side of the leg and is actively bleeding. The patient complains of numbness and tingling in his right foot. You should:
A 31-year-old male fell and landed on his left elbow. Your assessment reveals that the elbow is grossly deformed, his forearm is cool and pale, and the distal pulse on the side of the injury is barely palpable. His vital signs are stable and he denies any other injuries. Your transport time to the closest appropriate hospital is approximately 15 minutes. You should:
Applying ice to and elevating an injured extremity are performed in order to:
..., reduce pain and swelling
Which of the following statements regarding compartment syndrome is correct?
..., Compartment syndrome typically develops within 6 to 12 hours after an injury
The musculoskeletal system refers to the:
..., bones and voluntary muscles of the body
Deformity caused by a fracture would MOST likely be masked by:
The MOST commonly fractured bone(s) in the body is the:
Following direct trauma to the left upper back, a 44-year-old male presents with diaphoresis and restlessness. His blood pressure is 100/50 mm Hg, his pulse rate is 120 beats/min and weak, and his respirations are 24 breaths/min and labored. Your assessment reveals abrasions and contusions over the left scapula. You should:
..., apply high-flow oxygen, consider spinal precautions, and transport without delay
Assessing a person's neurovascular status following a musculoskeletal injury includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
..., evaluating proximal pulses.
With regard to musculoskeletal injuries, the zone of injury is defined as the:
..., area of soft-tissue damage surrounding the injury
Which of the following types of muscle is under direct voluntary control of the brain?
If a dislocated shoulder has spontaneously reduced before your arrival, the only way to confirm the injury is by noting:
..., the patient history.
The MOST significant hazard associated with splinting is:
..., delaying transport of a critically injured patient.
When splinting an injury of the wrist, the hand should be placed:
..., in a functional position.
The primary purpose for splinting a musculoskeletal injury is to:
..., prevent further injury
A fracture is MOST accurately defined as a(n):
..., break in the continuity of the bone.
A Colles fracture involves a fracture of the:
..., distal radius
A 45-year-old female was the unrestrained passenger of a small car that rear-ended another vehicle at a moderate rate of speed. She is conscious and alert, but complains of pain to both of her knees. There is visible damage to the dashboard on the passenger's side of the vehicle. In addition to fractures or dislocations of the knees, you should be MOST suspicious for:
Crepitus and false motion are:
..., positive indicators of fracture
A 17-year-old football player collided with another player and has pain to his left clavicular area. He is holding his arm against his chest and refuses to move it. Your assessment reveals obvious deformity to the midshaft clavicle. After assessing distal pulse, sensory, and motor functions, you should:
..., immobilize the injury with a sling and swathe
Which of the following fractures has the greatest potential for internal blood loss and shock?
Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries would pose the greatest threat to a patient's life?
..., pelvic fracture with hypotension
When caring for a patient with a possible fracture of the scapula, the EMT should:
..., carefully assess the patient for breathing problems.
In general, musculoskeletal injuries should be splinted before moving the patient unless:
..., the patient is clinically unstable
Bones are connected to other bones by bands of tough fibrous tissues called:
Skeletal muscle is also referred to as __________ muscle.
A 77-year-old woman slipped and fell on a throw rug and landed on her left hip. She denies striking her head or losing consciousness. Assessment of her left leg reveals that it is shortened and externally rotated. Distal pulses, sensory, and motor functions are intact. You should:
..., place her onto a scoop stretcher, pad around her left hip with pillows, and secure her to the scoop with straps
During your assessment of a 29-year-old female with significant deformity to her left elbow, you are unable to palpate a radial pulse. Your transport time to the hospital is approximately 40 minutes. You should:
..., apply gentle manual traction in line with the limb and reassess for a pulse
Femoral shaft fractures can result in up to _____ mL of internal blood loss.
A ____________ is a musculoskeletal injury in which there is partial or temporary separation of the bone ends as well as partial stretching or tearing of the supporting ligaments.
A fracture caused by minimal force that is associated with diseases such as cancer and osteoporosis is called a __________ fracture.
A 21-year-old male was thrown over the handlebars of his motorcycle when he rear-ended a car that was stopped at a red light. He was wearing a helmet, which he removed prior to your arrival. He is conscious, but restless, and has closed deformities to both of his femurs. His skin is pale, his heart rate is rapid and weak, and his respirations are rapid and shallow. In addition to applying high-flow oxygen and protecting his spine, you should:
Atrophy is a condition that occurs when:
..., muscle decreases in size and function because of disease or trauma
A "hip" fracture is actually a fracture of the:
..., proximal femur.
Common signs and symptoms of a sprain include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A(n) __________ fracture occurs in the growth section of a child's bone and may lead to bone growth abnormalities.
During your rapid secondary assessment of a 30-year-old male who fell 25′, you note crepitus when palpating his pelvis. Your partner advises you that the patient's blood pressure is 80/50 mm Hg and his heart rate is 120 beats/min and weak. After completing your assessment, you should:
..., stabilize the pelvis with a pelvic binder and protect the spine.
During your rapid secondary assessment of a 19-year-old female with multiple trauma, you note bilateral humeral deformities and a deformity to the left midshaft femur. Her skin is diaphoretic and her pulse is rapid and weak. Your partner has appropriately managed her airway and is maintaining manual stabilization of her head. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries would MOST likely result in deformity?
..., displaced fracture
An open fracture is MOST accurately defined as a fracture in which:
..., the overlying skin is no longer intact.
Skeletal muscle is attached to the bone by tough, ropelike fibrous structures called:
The body's natural cooling mechanism, in which sweat is converted to a gas, is called:
When a warm hand is immersed in water that is 70°F (21°C), heat is transferred from the hand to the water through a process called:
A patient with a core body temperature of 95°F (35°C) will MOST likely experience:
Geriatric patients, newborns, and infants are especially prone to hyperthermia because they:
..., exhibit poor thermal regulation
Drowning is MOST accurately defined as:
..., death from suffocation after submersion in water
A frostbitten foot can be identified by the presence of:
..., mottling and blisters
All of the following terms are used to describe a cold body part that is not frozen, EXCEPT:
Shivering is a mechanism in which the body generates heat by:
..., increasing the metabolic rate.
When the body loses sweat, it also loses:
High humidity reduces the body's ability to lose heat through:
Breath-holding syncope is caused by a decreased stimulus to breathe and occurs when:
..., a swimmer hyperventilates prior to entering the water
Signs of late heatstroke include:
..., a weak, rapid pulse.
The MOST prominent symptom of decompression sickness is:
..., abdominal or joint pain.
You are dispatched to a local high school track and field event for a 16-year-old male who fainted. The outside temperature is approximately 95°F (35°C) with high humidity. Upon your arrival, the patient is conscious, alert, and complains of nausea and a headache. His skin is cool, clammy, and pale. You should:
The body's natural protective mechanisms against heat loss are:
..., vasoconstriction and shivering
Compared to adults, infants and children are at higher risk for hypothermia for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
..., a relatively small surface area
An air embolism associated with diving occurs when:
..., the diver holds his or her breath during a rapid ascent.
To assess a patient's general temperature, pull back on your glove and place the back of your hand on his or her skin at the:
A dysbarism injury refers to the signs and symptoms related to changes in:
..., barometric pressure
Your assessment of a 23-year-old female reveals a core body temperature of 93.4°F (34°C). She is conscious, answers your questions appropriately, is shivering, and complains of nausea. Her skin is cold and pale, her muscles appear rigid, and her respirations are rapid. In addition to monitoring her ABCs, administering oxygen, and turning up the heat in the back of the ambulance, you should:
A 48-year-old male was stung on the leg by a jellyfish while swimming in the ocean. He is conscious and alert, but complains of intense pain at the wound site. Specific treatment for this patient includes:
20-year-old male was pulled from cold water by his friends. The length of his submersion is not known and was not witnessed. You perform a primary assessment and determine that the patient is apneic and has a slow, weak pulse. You should:
Most of the serious injuries associated with scuba diving are caused by:
..., too rapid of an ASCENT
You are assessing a 33-year-old male who complains of severe abdominal pain, weakness, and nausea. He tells you that he was gathering wood to build a fire when he felt a sudden, sharp pain on the back of his hand. Your assessment reveals that the patient's abdomen is rigid and painful to palpation. You should suspect:
..., a black widow spider bite
The two MOST efficient ways for the body to eliminate excess heat are:
..., sweating and dilation of skin blood vessels
Which of the following is an early sign of pit viper envenomation?
..., local swelling and ecchymosis
In order for sweating to be an effective cooling mechanism:
..., it must be able to evaporate from the body.
Heatstroke occurs when:
..., THE BODY'S HEAT-ELIMINATING MECHANISMS ARE OVERWHELMED AND CAN NO LONGER SWEAT
The transfer of heat to circulating air, such as when cool air moves across the body's surface, is called:
While drinking beer with his friends near a creek, a 31-year-old male was bitten on the leg by an unidentified snake. The patient is conscious and alert and in no apparent distress. Your assessment of his leg reveals two small puncture marks with minimal pain and swelling. In addition to administering oxygen and providing reassurance, further care for this patient should include:
Which of the following medications increases a person's risk of a heat-related emergency?
Common signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion include all of the following, EXCEPT:
..., hot, dry skin.
The venom of a brown recluse spider is cytotoxic, meaning that it:
..., causes severe local tissue damage
In contrast to the brown recluse spider, the black widow spider:
..., is large and has a red-orange hourglass mark on its abdomen.
Which of the following statements regarding lightning strikes is correct?
..., Lighting often results in a brief period of asystole that resolves spontaneously
All of the following snakes are pit vipers, EXCEPT for the:
..., coral snake
You and your partner respond to a park where several people were reportedly struck by lightning. When you arrive, you find three patients. The first patient is lying supine on the ground; he is unresponsive and does not appear to be breathing. The second patient is ambulatory, appears confused, and is holding his arm against his chest. The third patient is sitting on the ground holding the sides of his head. After calling for backup, you should:
Which of the following statements regarding drowning is correct?
..., Laryngospasm following submersion in water makes rescue breathing difficult.
You respond to a local lake where a diver complains of difficulty breathing that occurred immediately after rapidly ascending from a depth of approximately 30′. On assessment, you note that he has cyanosis around his lips and has pink froth coming from his nose and mouth. You should:
A person's ability to shiver is lost when his or her body temperature falls below:
..., 90°F (32°C).
Burns associated with lightning strikes are typically:
You receive a call to a residence for a sick patient. Upon your arrival, you find the patient, a 53-year-old diabetic male, lying down on his front porch. His wife tells you that he had been mowing the lawn in the heat for the past 3 hours. The patient is confused and has hot, moist skin. His pulse is weak and thready, and his blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg. In addition to administering 100% oxygen, you should:
The EMT must assume that any unwitnessed water-related incident is accompanied by:
..., possible spinal injury.
The diving reflex may allow a person to survive extended periods of submersion in cold water secondary to:
..., bradycardia and a slowing of the metabolic rate
Signs and symptoms of an air embolism include all of the following, EXCEPT:
..., pale skin
You are transporting a 28-year-old man with a frostbitten foot. The patient's vital signs are stable and he denies any other injuries or symptoms. The weather is treacherous and your transport time to the hospital is approximately 45 minutes. During transport, you should:
You and your partner are standing by at a large social event at a river resort when a frantic woman tells you that she found a young male floating face-down in the water. Nobody claims to have witnessed the event. After you and your partner enter the water and reach the patient, you should:
..., move him as a unit to a supine position.
You are dispatched to a residence for a young female who is sick. The patient complains of a rash to her lower extremities and truncal area. Your assessment reveals a small, painful blister on her inner thigh. As your partner is taking the patient's vital signs, she states that she and her family returned from a camping trip two days ago. On the basis of this patient's presentation, you should suspect:
Which of the following MOST accurately describes hyperthermia?
..., The body is exposed to more heat than it can lose.
A 30-year-old male was rescued after being lost in the woods for approximately 18 hours. The outside temperature is 30°F (-1°C). He is immediately placed in the warmed ambulance, where you perform a primary assessment. He is unconscious, pale, and apneic. You should:
The venom of a black widow spider is toxic to the:
..., nervous system
Rough handling of a hypothermic patient with a pulse may cause:
..., ventricular fibrillation
Hypothermia can worsen internal bleeding secondary to:
..., blood clotting abnormalities
Heat loss from the body through respiration occurs when:
..., warm air is exhaled into the atmosphere.
Covering a patient's _________ will significantly minimize radiation heat loss.