Chapter 22: Reconstructing and Using Phylogenies

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3. The evolutionary relationship among organisms is known as
a. taxonomy.
b. phylogeny.
c. paraphyly.
d. synapomorphy.
e. homoplasy.

b. phylogeny.

4. The wasp genus Nasonia contains all of the descendants of the common ancestor of its members. This genus therefore would be called
a. a synapomorphy.
b. a polyphyly.
c. a clade.
d. parsimonious.
e. self-compatible.

c. a clade.

7. The common ancestor of all of the species displayed in a phylogenetic tree lies at the _______ of the tree.
a. node
b. root
c. tip
d. taxon
e. None of the above

b. root

8. Which of the following is formed when two branches diverge from one another in a phylogenetic tree?
a. A population
b. A lineage
c. A node
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

c. A node

10. Which of the following can never be homologous features?
a. DNA sequences
b. Anatomical structures
c. Inherited behavioral patterns
d. Secondary structures of proteins
e. All of the above have the potential to be homologous features.

e. All of the above have the potential to be homologous features.

11. Shared derived traits are also known as
a. homoplasies.
b. synapomorphies.
c. sympatries.
d. homologies.
e. paraphylies.

b. synapomorphies.

12. The antifreeze proteins found in fish that live in very cold waters has evolved independently in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, and not because of shared ancestry. Which of the following can be said about its evolution?
a. The antifreeze proteins in Arctic and Antarctic fish are homologous.
b. The antifreeze proteins in Arctic and Antarctic fish are homoplasies.
c. The Arctic and Antarctic fish form a clade.
d. Both a and c
e. None of the above

b. The antifreeze proteins in Arctic and Antarctic fish are homoplasies.

13. As adaptions for flight, the wings of bats and the wings of birds are an example of
a. synapomorphy.
b. evolutionary reversal.
c. monophyly.
d. paraphyly.
e. convergent evolution.

e. convergent evolution.

14. Which of the following statements is true?
a. All homoplastic traits are due to convergent evolution.
b. All homologous traits are homoplasies.
c. All synapomorphies are derived traits.
d. All derived traits are synapomorphies.
e. None of the above

c. All synapomorphies are derived traits.

15. Homoplasies can arise via
a. convergent evolution.
b. synapomorphies.
c. evolutionary reversals.
d. Both a and c
e. Both b and c

d. Both a and c

16. Snakes, which lack limbs, evolved from vertebrates that had legs. This is an example of
a. convergent evolution.
b. an evolutionary reversal.
c. a synapomorphy.
d. a homology.
e. None of the above

b. an evolutionary reversal.

19. Which of the following cannot result in homoplasy?
a. Convergent evolution
b. Evolutionary reversals
c. Descent from a common ancestor
d. Similar selection pressures
e. All of the above can result in homoplasy.

c. Descent from a common ancestor

20. Species A and B have long wings, whereas species C has short wings. Which of the following pieces of evidence would best support the hypothesis that long wings are a synapomorphy?
a. Fossil evidence showing that the common ancestor of species A, B, and C had long wings
b. Fossil evidence showing that the common ancestor of species A, B, and C had short wings
c. DNA evidence showing that species A and C are sister species
d. DNA evidence showing that species B and C are sister species
e. Evidence showing that species A and B live in an environment that favors long wings, whereas species C lives in an environment that favors short wings

b. Fossil evidence showing that the common ancestor of species A, B, and C had short wings

22. According to the principle of parsimony, the best phylogenetic hypothesis is the one that requires the
a. fewest homologies.
b. most homoplasies.
c. fewest homoplasies.
d. most clades.
e. fewest clades.

c. fewest homoplasies.

24. Which of the following is a limitation of the use of morphology in phylogenetic analysis?
a. Some morphological variation has a genetic basis.
b. Few morphological traits can be directly compared across distant taxa.
c. Some taxa exhibit little morphological diversity.
d. Both a and b
e. Both b and c

e. Both b and c

27. In systematics and phylogeny, the fossil record is especially important because
a. most groups are well represented.
b. it provides the absolute timing of evolutionary events.
c. random mutations make most biochemical methods unreliable.
d. DNA can be extracted from nearly all ancient fossils and then analyzed.
e. it provides the only data that is useful in reconstructing the past.

b. it provides the absolute timing of evolutionary events.

43. Humans and chimpanzees diverged about 6 million years ago. If 12 nucleotide substitutions have occurred between human and chimpanzee lineages in a sequence of mitochondrial DNA, and 36 have occurred between humans and gibbons, humans and gibbons, according to the molecular clock, separated _______ million years ago.
a. 2
b. 6
c. 12
d. 18
e. 36

d. 18

55. A taxon that includes a common ancestor, all descendants of that ancestor, and no other organisms is considered to be
a. paraphyletic.
b. polyphyletic.
c. synapomorphous.
d. monogamous.
e. monophyletic.

e. monophyletic.

56. A group that includes the common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants is considered to be
a. paraphyletic.
b. polyphyletic.
c. synapomorphous.
d. monogamous.
e. monophyletic.

a. paraphyletic.

57. Which of the following statements about monophyletic groups is true?
a. They are clades.
b. They include all descendants of the common ancestor of the members of the group.
c At least two "cuts" are required to remove a monophyletic group from a phylogenetic tree.
d. Both a and b
e. Both b and c

d. Both a and b

58. Which of the following types of groups can be removed by a single "cut" to a phylogenetic tree, without the removal of any other species outside the group?
a. Paraphyletic
b. Polyphyletic
c. Monophyletic
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

c. Monophyletic

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