8th grade history

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Washington was elected president unanimously and gained the admiration of many Americans primarily because

he seemed to personify the eighteenth-century ideal of the disinterested republican political leader.

Washington chose which of the following men to be his secretary of the treasury?

Alexander Hamilton

In response to promises that had been made in order to obtain ratification of the Constitution, James Madison drew up the

first ten amendments to the Constitution, commonly called the Bill of Rights.

Which of the following was significantly omitted from the Bill of Rights?

the right to vote

In the new republic, traditional gender relations

remained largely unaltered from the norm.

American cotton production underwent a real boom in the late 1790s because of

market conditions and the invention of the cotton gin.

Alexander Hamilton publicly claimed that rolling the old certificates of debt into new government bonds would

infuse money into the economy and inspire citizens' confidence in the government.

To restore faith in the credit of the federal government, Hamilton proposed

that the federal government assume the unpaid war debts of the states

The federal government's decision to move its permanent home from Philadelphia to Washington D.C. came as a result of

controversy surrounding Hamilton's proposal to assume the states' war debts.

The main purpose of the moderate tariff that Hamilton proposed in his Report on Manufactures was to

protect and foster domestic manufacturing.

The Whiskey Rebellion

was a protest by grain farmers against the excise tax on whiskey.

To meet the interest payments on the national debt under his consolidation ("assumption") plan, Alexander Hamilton convinced Congress to pass

a 25 percent excise tax on whiskey.

In response to the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794, President Washington

nationalized the Pennsylvania militia and led the effort to put down the revolt.

Alexander Hamilton viewed the Whiskey Rebellion as a(n)

serious threat to federal leadership within the country.

In 1794, General Anthony Wayne's defeat of the Indians at Fallen Timbers resulted in

the Treaty of Greenville.

Which of the following goods offered to the Indians under the Treaty of Greenville was the most detrimental to the tribes?

liquor

What was President Washington's first reaction to the war between England and France that began in 1793?

He issued a Neutrality Proclamation.

Which of the following best describes American sentiment regarding the English-French struggle in 1793?

Many Americans were angered by an official declaration of neutrality.

How did the Haitian Revolution of 1791-1804 affect white Americans?

They became fearful that the rebellion might spread to American shores.

The first signs of distinct rival U.S. political groups appeared

during Washington's second term.

In his farewell address, President Washington spoke for a "unified body politic" and against

America forming permanent alliances with foreign countries.

In the 1796 presidential election, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson

ended up being president and vice president.

In the election of 1796, a procedural flaw resulted in the election of political rivals as president and vice president; this flaw was

corrected by passage of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804

. During President Adams's one term in office, Vice President Jefferson

withdrew from active counsel of the president due to the influence of the Hamiltonian cabinet.

In the fall of 1797, in order to avert a war with France, President Adams

sent three men to negotiate peace with France.

X, Y, and Z were the code names for

three unnamed French agents sent by Talleyrand to meet with American commissioners.

The basic intent of the two Alien Acts passed by Congress was to

harass French immigrants already in the United States and discourage others from coming.

The Sedition Act targeted mainly

Republican newspaper editors who freely published criticism of the Adams administration.

The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions put forth the novel idea that

states have the right to judge the constitutionality of federal laws and can nullify laws that infringe on liberties as defined in the Bill of Rights.

In the election of 1800,

party lines were drawn between Republicans and Federalists.

As the presidential election of 1800 played out in the House of Representatives, Federalist Alexander Hamilton supported Thomas Jefferson over Aaron Burr because

although Hamilton was no fan of Jefferson, he believed that Burr would prove far more dangerous to the republic should he be elected president.

The alleged plot by Gabriel, a 24-year-old slave, to stage a slave rebellion led white Virginians to

hang 27 black men for contemplating rebellion.

Thomas Jefferson made it a point to dress in plain, casual clothing to

make an important point about republican simplicity and manners.

According to Thomas Jefferson, the source of true freedom in America was the

virtuous, independent farmer who owned and worked his land both for himself and for the market.

President Jefferson believed that a properly limited federal government

ran the postal system, collected customs duties, staffed lighthouses, conducted a periodic census, and maintained federal courts.

In his last weeks as president in 1801, John Adams appointed his famous "midnight judges" as a way to

leave as many Federalists as possible in government positions as political counterweights to the incoming Republican administration.

The most lasting effect of Marbury v. Madison (1803) was

the Supreme Court's action to disallow a law on the grounds that it was unconstitutional.

Events in the Louisiana Territory in 1802 alerted the United States to a potential national security problem, as

Spain had turned over the territory to France, which was then under the rule of powerful expansionist Napoleon.

The exploration of the Spanish and Indian territory west of the Mississippi River by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark was successful in

establishing good relations with many Indian tribes and collecting valuable information on the peoples, plants, animals, and geography of the region.

The Embargo Act of 1807 was passed by Congress to

forbid American ships from engaging in trade in any foreign port and thus make England suffer while preventing illegal trade through secondary ports.

The Embargo Act of 1807 affected the United States by

bringing U.S. exporting to a standstill, increasing unemployment, and seriously reducing government revenues.

Under the leadership of Dolley Madison, the White House

hosted members of Congress, cabinet officers, and other distinguished guests for weekly parties.

Women in early nineteenth-century Washington, D.C., played an important role in political circles

by influencing patronage, writing letters of recommendation, and shaping personal connections.

In negotiating the Treaty of Fort Wayne in 1809, William Henry Harrison angered the Shawnee chief Tecumseh by

negotiating with several Native American chiefs who had no legitimate claims to the land they ceded to the U.S. government.

The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809

prohibited trade with England and France and their colonies.

War Hawks were young congressmen who

were enthusiastic for expansion, ready to subdue Native Americans standing in the way of white settlement, and eager to declare war on England.

The war with Great Britain declared by Congress in 1812 was

passed by a vote that was divided along sectional lines.

When British soldiers entered Washington, D.C., in 1814, they

set fire to much of the city.

While Andrew Jackson's defeat of the British at New Orleans cemented his status as a military hero, what he did not know at the time was that

the War of 1812 had been over for two weeks.

The Treaty of Ghent ending the War of 1812

actually settled few of the issues that had led to war.

The group that suffered the greatest losses in the War of 1812 was the

Indians

When faced with the opportunity to rewrite the laws of domestic relations, state legislatures generally

did little to change any laws relating to domestic relations.

By 1820, divorce in the United States

was the one aspect of family law that had changed since the eighteenth century and, while difficult to obtain, was possible in most states.

Jemima Wilkinson was an exhorting woman; specifically, she

dressed in men's clothes and preached openly in Rhode Island and Philadelphia.

James Tallmadge Jr.'s amendments to the Missouri statehood bill of 1819 were controversial because their ultimate effect would have been to

make Missouri a free state

In the Adams-Onís Treaty, the United States obtained from Spain the territory of

Florida

In 1823, President James Monroe issued what became known as the Monroe Doctrine, a statement that the Americas

"are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power."

The presidential election of 1824 was complicated by

an unprecedented five candidates seeking the support of one political party.

The presidential election of 1824 was notable because it was the last

to be decided in the House of Representatives.

U.S. involvement in the War of 1812 encouraged economic growth in the

manufacturing sector, because the embargo and trade stoppages meant that American factories received a temporary respite from competition with the British.

Funding for transportation improvements in America between 1815 and 1840 came mostly from

private and state funding

The most horrifying hazard faced by people traveling on steamboats in the early nineteenth century was

being injured or killed by the frequent boiler explosions.

Steamboats had a detrimental effect on the environment because they

led to deforestation and air pollution.

Canals were an important innovation in the early nineteenth century because

they allowed cheaper transport by virtue of greatly increased loads

Employees of early textile mills in New England were

mainly young women who left rural farms and flocked to factory towns in the hope of gaining more autonomy.

For workers in early Massachusetts factories, wages were

low because workers were easily replaced.

In the economy of Jacksonian America, bankers

All of the above

Lawyers of the 1820s and 1830s created the legal foundation for an economy that gave priority to

ambitious individuals interested in maximizing their own wealth.

Because of their distrust of the economic elite, Andrew Jackson and many of his followers wanted to

end government support for business, thereby encouraging individual liberties and economic opportunities.

In large measure, the panic! of 1819 occurred as a result of

a contraction of the money supply and plummeting prices of commodities.

Between 1828 and 1836, the second American party system took shape; it

was, by 1836, a fully functioning, national, two-party political system.

An important transition in American politics took place during the Jacksonian era as

different campaigning tactics and increasingly democratic rhetoric made it necessary for candidates to appeal to common people.

One of the key elements in the political landscape of Jacksonian America was the upsurge of universal white male suffrage,

as most states abolished property qualifications for voting.

After 1828, political leaders considered the development of political parties to be

an effective way to encourage voter loyalty that transcended specific candidates and elections.

Andrew Jackson set an important political precedent when he selected his cabinet by

excluding members of political factions that were not loyal to him.

As president, Andrew Jackson favored

a limited federal government and the establishment of a federal Indian policy to remove the Indians.

In 1830, President Jackson convinced Congress to pass legislation that

forced Native Americans to relocate west of the Mississippi and opened up about 100 million acres of land for white settlers.

In Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the Supreme Court ruled that the

Cherokees in Georgia existed as "a distinct community, occupying its own territory, in which the laws of Georgia can have no force."

The infamous Trail of Tears was

a 1,200-mile forced march by Cherokees who were expelled from their land.

In support of the doctrine of nullification, South Carolina's leader pointed to

the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798.

A compelling reason underlying South Carolina's argument for nullification in 1828 was that

a Northern-dominated federal government might decide to end slavery, which would threaten the very foundation of the South's economic system.

Henry Clay wanted to force the issue of the renewal of the charter of the Bank of the United States before the presidential election of 1832 because he hoped to

force Andrew Jackson into an unpopular veto on the issue in order to secure support for Clay as president.

As a result of his lopsided win in the election of 1832, Andrew Jackson tried to

destroy the Bank of the United States before its charter expired, a process he began by removing federal deposits from the bank and depositing them in Democratic-leaning banks throughout the country.

A positive effect of the economic turmoil of Jackson's second administration was that from 1835 to 1837, for the first and only time in U.S. history,

the government had a surplus of money.

After 1815, the idea of separate spheres and separate duties for men and women was strengthened by the fact that

men's work was newly disconnected from the home and increasingly brought cash to the household.

The spread of public schools in the 1820s and 1830s made education more accessible to students and affected teaching by

initiating a shift toward hiring women as cheap instructors.

A typical pattern for boys not remaining on the farm in the 1820s and 1830s was to

leave school at the age of fourteen and become either an apprentice in a trade or an entry-level clerk.

The Second Great Awakening

brought forth an outpouring of evangelical religious fervor that offered salvation to the less than perfect.

The leading exemplar of the Second Great Awakening, Charles Grandison Finney, insisted that

Americans "vote in the Lord Jesus Christ as the governor of the universe."

Alcohol consumption in America in the decades up to 1830 was

widespread, rising, and often tended toward abusive amounts.

By 1845, the American Temperance Union and other temperance advocates

had succeeded in decreasing alcohol consumption in the United States.

The nationally circulated Advocate of Moral Reform was a

newspaper published by women that took men to task for the sexual sin of frequenting prostitutes and perpetuating prostitution.

One of the most radical reform movements of the 1830s was the

effort to abolish slavery

In 1831, William Lloyd Garrison launched

the Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper advocating an immediate end to slavery.

Relatively few white Northerners got involved in the campaign to eradicate slavery because

even though they may have viewed slavery as counterproductive or immoral, they tended to be racists.

One of the precipitating causes of the panic! of 1837 was

that the Bank of England began call in loans made to American merchants.

In the presidential election of 1836, three Whig candidates ran against Democrat Van Buren

because each candidate had a solid popular regional base but none had the support of all regions.

Van Buren pushed for an independent treasury system, funded by government deposits, which would

deal only in hard money.

High rates of voter participation continued into the 1840s and 1850s because

politics remained the arena where different choices about economic development and social change were contested.

Angelina Grimké, Sarah Grimké, and Maria Stewart, women lecturers who conveyed a powerful antislavery message, encountered hostility in the North because

they affronted a rigid cultural norm by speaking in public and presuming to instruct men.

Andrew Jackson Home State

Tennesee

John C. Calhoun Home State

South Carolina

Martin Van Buren Home State

New York

Henry Clay Home State

Kentucky

John Quincy Adams Home State

Massamchusettes

One of the factors that fueled economic growth in the United States during the mid-1800s was

the movement of Americans from farms to cities, where they found jobs working in factories.

During the 1840s and 1850s, U.S. factories were able to become more productive because

steam engines began to be used as an energy source.

The population increased greatly in Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois between 1830 and 1860 because

the relatively treeless setting and rich soil made conditions favorable to farming.

Agricultural productivity in the Midwest increased in the late 1830s partly because of

John Deere's steel plow.

Unlike European manufacturers in the first half of the nineteenth century, American manufacturers were spurred to invent labor-saving methods and devices because

workers were in limited supply and thus more expensive.

The growth of railroads in the 1850s

fostered iron production, coal production, and the telegraph industry.

The free-labor ideal affected attitudes toward education in mid-nineteenth century America because

education offered another opportunity for Americans to achieve their potential through hard work and self-discipline.

The free-labor ideal of the 1840s and 1850s

did not mesh with the economic inequalities of the times and led to a restless and mobile society.

Which of the following were among the reasons why immigrants left their homelands for the United States in the 1840s and 1850s?

famine and deteriorating economic conditions in their mother countries, along with the opportunities in America for skilled artisans

In contrast to the Germans, Irish immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s often

entered at the bottom rung of the free-labor ladder as wage laborers or domestic servants

In 1845, New York journalist and armchair expansionist John L. O'Sullivan coined the term manifest destiny, by which he meant that

Americans had the God-given right to expand their superior civilization across the continent.

The idea of manifest destiny gained considerable support because of

the American people's strong desire for more land.

The increasing number of white settlers traveling west in wagon trains during the mid-1800s brought devastation to the Plains Indians because whites

brought with them alcohol and diseases like smallpox, measles, cholera, and scarlet fever.

Migration to Oregon

appealed to men more than women.

Mexico's northern borderlands were vulnerable to American expansionists partly because

of sparse populations and hostile Native Americans.

Migrants who settled on the Texas land granted to Stephen F. Austin by Mexico in the 1820s were

Southerners who brought cotton and slaves with them.

In 1830, Mexico outlawed the introduction of additional slaves in Texas because

it hoped to discourage any more American settlers from coming to the area.

Texans gained their independence from Mexico in 1836

only after fierce fighting and much bloodshed.

Why did Congress refuse to annex Texas into the Union?

Texas would come into the Union as a slave state.

The dominant issue in the 1844 presidential election campaigns was

the annexation of Texas.

How was President Polk able to add Oregon to U.S. holdings?

He renewed an old offer to divide Oregon along the forty-ninth parallel, and the British accepted.

When Mexico refused the Polk administration's offer to buy Mexico's northern territories, the reaction of the United States was to

realize that it would take military force to achieve manifest destiny.

President Polk directed the war with Mexico personally; his strategy to win the war was

to occupy Mexico's northern provinces and win a couple of major battles, after which Mexico would sue for peace.

President Polk's battle strategy misfired because

Mexico refused to trade land for peace.

The Mexican-American War ended with the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which Mexico

gave up all claims to Texas above the Rio Grande and ceded the provinces of New Mexico and California to the United States.

In the late 1840s and early 1850s massive numbers of immigrants poured into California seeking

gold

The Gold Rush created a social environment that was

competitive, violent, and unhealthy, but growing rapidly.

In addition to some miners, the gold rush in California benefited

entrepreneurs who supplied the miners.

Members of the Oneida community

challenged sexual mores through the practice of complex marriage.

The convention at Seneca Falls in 1848 advocated

women's rights and suffrage.

By 1860 women's rights advocates succeeded in achieving

married women's rights to their own wages and property.

. Abolitionists in the 1840s and 1850s made their issue more attractive to white Northerners by promoting

limitations on the geographic expansion of slavery.

In 1843, Henry Highland Garnet advocated

slaves rising in insurrection against their masters.

In 1855, African American leaders saw their most notable success to date when

public schools were integrated in Massachusetts.

Behind the scenes, Harriet Tubman and other free blacks helped fugitive slaves escape from the South

via the underground railroad.

Specialization

raising one or two cash crops that can be sold at home or abroad

Market Revolution

when people buy and sell goods rather than making them for their own use

Capitalism

an economic system in which private businesses and individuals control the means of production

Entrepreneur

"to undertake" risked their own money for industry

Samuel F.B Morse

invented the telegraph which allowed faster communication over longer distances. He also developed Morse code

Telegraph

machine invented by Samuel Morse in 1837 that used a system of dots and dashes to send messages across long distances electronically through a wire

John Deere

American blacksmith that was responsible for inventing the steel plow. This new plow was much stronger than the old iron version; therefore, it made plowing farmland in the west easier, making expansion faster.

Manifest Destiny

the belief that the united states destiny was to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territory

Treaty of Fort Laramie

treaty under which government agreed to close Bozeman trail, and Sioux agreed to live on reserve along Missouri River. The Sioux were forced into this treaty. The treaty was only a temporary to warfare between Native Americans and Whites.

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