Human Growth and Development Psychology

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Part 1

When compared with preterm infants who do not receive massage, preterm infants who receive massage:

a. have better overall health.

The upper limit of the human life span is approximately _____ years of age.

c. 122

Mara is pregnant, and she recently watched a news program about the negative effects of mercury on a fetus. To alleviate her fears about mercury poisoning, Mara should limit eating:

c. fish.

Which of the following is an example of social policy?

c. a government lowering federal taxes

An eclectic theory of development assumes that:

b. no single theory can account for all of human development.

________ drugs act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.

d. Psychoactive

A __________ is an integrated set of ideas that helps to explain, and a __________ is an assertion or prediction that can be tested to determine its accuracy.

a. theory; hypothesis

In ethological theory, the term __________ is defined as innate learning within a short period of time that involves a newborn's becoming attached to the first moving thing the newborn sees.

b. imprinting

Most students take the ACT or the SAT before they enter college. These tests are examples of __________ measures.

d. standardized

Jasmine and her fetus are Rh incompatible. This means that:

d. Jasmine may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus.

Hans is tall and has undeveloped testes and developed unusually large breasts for a man. What sex-linked disorder does he have?

c. Klinefelter syndrome

Researchers from many different fields of study examine human development in an effort to better understand how humans develop. This makes human development a __________ field of study.

c. multidisciplinary

Using a twin study, Professor Jones has just found that identical twins were more likely to both develop a conduct disorder than were fraternal twins. He has decided to announce to the world that, clearly, conduct disorder is determined by one's genes. His colleagues suggested, however, that he use caution when interpreting these findings because:

a. the environments of identical twins may be more similar than the environments of fraternal twins.

When it comes to the inheritance of an X-linked disease, which group has the best chance for inheritance?

b. males

Which of the following of Erik Erikson's stages would most accurately describe the developmental phase of a preschooler?

b. initiative versus guilt

Pat's 23rd chromosome pair contains one X and one Y chromosome. This indicates that Pat:

b. is male.

Malorie was born in her mother's 32nd week of pregnancy. Malorie would be termed a ________ baby.

a. preterm

The main concern of Erik Erikson's stage of generativity versus stagnation is to:

a. help the next generation develop and lead useful lives.

According to behaviorists, what is the only correct entity that should be included in scientific research?

a. observable actions

Emanuel is a 25-year-old African American. He is constantly anemic because of an abnormality in his blood. Emanuel has:

b. sickle-cell anemia.

In an experimental design, the dependent variable:

a. can change only in response to a change in the independent variable.

According to Urie Bronfenbrenner, this aspect of the environment refers to the setting in which an individual lives.

a. microsystem

Informed consent in research contains all of the following, EXCEPT:

c. detailed hypothesis.

Duvon's wife has just given birth to their son. It is possible that in the weeks after the son is born, Duvon may feel:

d. upset that the baby comes first

By age 50, many people need reading glasses or bifocals to improve their vision. This physiological change is a good example of a:

c. normative age-graded influence on development.

Dr. Bursten recently conducted research on the drinking habits of teenagers. To get his study subjects to be as open and honest with him as possible, he assured them that according to the ethical guidelines of the APA, all information that is collected is:

b. confidential.

Paul Baltes claimed that nonnormative life events could provide an important context for life-span development. With this concept, the term "nonnormative" refers to an event that:

a. is not likely to happen to very many people.

Approximately 1 week after conception, the developing organism is called a(n):

b. blastocyst.

A person's ________ refers to all of an individual's genetic material, including that which has and has not yet been expressed.

b. genotype

After fertilization of the egg by a sperm, a single cell is created that is known as a(n):

b. zygote.

Using a twin study, Professor Jones has just found that identical twins were more likely to both develop a conduct disorder than were fraternal twins. He has decided to announce to the world that, clearly, conduct disorder is determined by one's genes. His colleagues suggested, however, that he use caution when interpreting these findings because:

a. the environments of identical twins may be more similar than the environments of fraternal twins.

The second stage of childbirth begins with the _______ and ends with the _____.

c. movement of the child's head through the cervix; emergence of the child out of the mother

When baby Juan was born, he had problems with his sensory systems. There were noticeable defects in his eyes, ears, and nose. Most likely, Juan's problems came from defects in the formation of the:

a. ectoderm.

The second stage of Erik Erikson's psychosocial development theory is:

b. autonomy versus shame and doubt.

Martin believes that the length of a person's foot is directly correlated with his or her intelligence level. To test his _________, he should follow the steps of the scientific method.

a. hypothesis

Kangaroo care with preterm infants has been found to stabilize all of the following, EXCEPT:

c. sleeping.

John Bowlby's work in attachment showed that an infant's attachment to a caregiver has important influence over the life span. Bowlby further suggested that attachment should take place:

d. over the first year.

David and Kelly are seeking help for infertility problems. Under their physician's guidance, they decide to undergo a procedure in which one of Kelly's eggs is combined in a laboratory dish with her husband's sperm. What procedure is this?

d. in vitro fertilization

Roberta is 45 years old and has always had a hard time speaking her opinion. A psychoanalytic psychologist might suggest that she has developed this way because:

a. her parents would not listen to or value her opinion when she was a child.

The process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size 5 to 6 weeks after birth is known as:

d. involution.

The fetal period begins ________ months after conception and lasts until birth.

c. 2

Professor Clifton has designed an experiment to study the effects of caffeine on memory. However, she has informed her participants that she is investigating the taste preferences of caffeine drinks. Professor Clifton has:

a. used deception, but this is ethically acceptable if it does not harm the participants.

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a psychoactive drug?

a. It is always addictive.

Dan and Michelle have been having difficulty conceiving a child, so they've decided to try in-vitro fertilization to start a family. One of the risks of this assisted reproductive technology that they should know about is that:

b. 25-30 percent of conceptions that occur using IVF result in multiple births (e.g., twins, triplets, etc.).

Meiosis is the process by which a cell divides and then divides again, leaving:

a. four cells with 23 unpaired chromosomes.

Which of the following methods is the best method to determine cause and effect?

c. experimental method

When studying development, behavioral theorists believe that only behavior must be observed because it:

b. is the only direct and measurable indication we have of development.

European Americans:

d. are an ethnic group like any other ethnic group in the United States or the world.

According to behaviorists, what is the only correct entity that should be included in scientific research?

a. observable actions

Sheila is pregnant and has a family history of spina bifida. Which test would be used to determine whether her fetus has this defect?

d. maternal blood screening

A(n) __________ is a group of people who are born at a similar time in history and share similar experiences.

c. cohort

What does the traditional view of human development state about developmental change in adulthood?

a. There are few or no changes that occur during adulthood.

Mariah had a new baby last month. Mariah cries and worries a lot, is depressed, and has trouble coping with her daily activities. Given what researchers know about the postpartum period, Mariah:

d. should seek professional counseling or assistance.

David and Kelly are seeking help for infertility problems. Under their physician's guidance, they decide to undergo a procedure in which one of Kelly's eggs is combined in a laboratory dish with her husband's sperm. What procedure is this?

d. in vitro fertilization

A complex molecule that has a double-helix shape and contains genetic information is:

c. DNA.

Nellie bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. B. F. Skinner would say that the best way to solve this problem is to:

d. reward Nellie when she does not bang her head, and punish the head-banging behavior.

The key developmental processes in life-span development include all of the following EXCEPT:

d. physical/sensory processes.

Felipe is curious about the tipping behavior of patrons at a local restaurant. Occasionally, he sits in the restaurant and watches some of the people around him. He is not able to observe all of the tables in the place, so he formulates his opinions about tipping behavior by the few patrons he can see. What is wrong with Felipe's research?

c. It is not systematic.

Using a twin study, Professor Jones has just found that identical twins were more likely to both develop a conduct disorder than were fraternal twins. He has decided to announce to the world that, clearly, conduct disorder is determined by one's genes. His colleagues suggested, however, that he use caution when interpreting these findings because:

a. the environments of identical twins may be more similar than the environments of fraternal twins.

In which of the following countries is a child most likely to be born to a mother who was assisted by a midwife as opposed to a physician?

a. Holland

Jasmine and her fetus are Rh incompatible. This means that:

d. Jasmine may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus.

Michael was adopted at birth. His adoptive parents notice that Michael cries all the time. His body often shakes, and he reacts slowly to the things around him. They suspect that Michael's mother was using _______ when pregnant with him.

a. heroin

An eclectic theory of development assumes that:

b. no single theory can account for all of human development.

Mary's parents fight quite often over money. In an attempt to stop the fighting and to save the family money, Mary decides that she will not ask for anything for her birthday or any holiday. Mary's actions are being expressed in which of Urie Bronfenbrenner's systems?

b. microsystem

During which period of development is the unborn baby MOST AT RISK of developing a structural defect because of the effects of a teratogen?

c. during the embryonic period

A group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and offspring intertwine but do not join is the:

b. placenta

The difference between a control group and an experimental group is that the:

a. control group does not receive the independent variable.

Which of the following is NOT a drawback to longitudinal research?

b. stability over time

A person's ________ refers to all of an individual's genetic material, including that which has and has not yet been expressed.

b. genotype

After fertilization of the egg by a sperm, a single cell is created that is known as a(n):

b. zygote.

Gustav spends a lot of time thinking about the world as it is now and as it could be if everyone took more personal responsibility for environmental and social conditions. Jean Piaget would say that Gustav is probably in the __________ stage of development.

d. formal operational

Sylvia has severe cystic acne and is taking Accutane, a drug prescribed by her doctor. She has just discovered that she is pregnant. Her doctor should tell her to:

b. stop taking Accutane immediately.

Evolutionary developmental psychology argues that many evolved psychological mechanisms are _________, which means that they apply only to a specific part of an individual's makeup.

b. domain-specific

John Bowlby's work in attachment showed that an infant's attachment to a caregiver has important influence over the life span. Bowlby further suggested that attachment should take place:

d. over the first year.

Mara is pregnant, and she recently watched a news program about the negative effects of mercury on a fetus. To alleviate her fears about mercury poisoning, Mara should limit eating:

c. fish.

Professor Clifton has designed an experiment to study the effects of caffeine on memory. However, she has informed her participants that she is investigating the taste preferences of caffeine drinks. Professor Clifton has:

a. used deception, but this is ethically acceptable if it does not harm the participants.

Duvon's wife has just given birth to their son. It is possible that in the weeks after the son is born, Duvon may feel:

d. upset that the baby comes first.

Laboratory observations can be less effective than naturalistic observations because laboratory observations:

a. require unnatural environments.

After completing a study, a researcher must inform all the participants of the complete purpose and the results of the study. This mandated by what APA ethical concept?

a. debriefing

Dr. Baird collects data on approach behaviors between strangers at the mall on weekend afternoons. A strength of this naturalistic observational approach is that it:

a. occurs in a real-world setting.

Marty is developing rapidly in her size and abilities to sit and stand. Many of the reflexes with which she was born are fading, but she is not yet able to climb or ride on riding toys. Marty is probably in the __________ of life.

a. first year

Tameka and Roy have just had a baby. Every night, their baby is up for several hours, and she often sleeps during the day. How long will these parents have to wait until their child has established a pattern of sleeping mostly at night?

b. 4 months

Monsena is an independent and adventurous child who likes to explore new places in her environment. However, her mother is overly controlling and rigid. Developmental psychologists would say that a discussion of this discrepancy concerns:

a. goodness of fit.

Javier and his father are at the circus. A clown jumps in front of them, and Javier looks at his father to see if he is afraid or laughing. Javier is using:

a. social referencing.

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

c. Extensive brain development continues after birth.

What is the main difference between most child-care policies available in the United States and in Sweden?

a. level of inclusion of the father

Evidence that supports the idea that emotions have a strong biological foundation includes all of the following, EXCEPT:

c. men and women share the same basic emotions.

In the Strange Situation, Latoya basically ignored her mother, was not upset when she left the room, and did not seek her out when she returned. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Latoya as:

b. insecure avoidant.

Gross motor is to __________ as fine motor is to _________.

c. large muscles; small muscles

When you integrate information from two or more sensory modes, you experience:

b. intermodal perception.

Shalena is 15 months old and just learning to talk. One of her first words was "car." Anytime Shalena sees any type of vehicle, she says "car." This is an example of:

a. overextension.

Children develop the ability to regulate their emotions:

d. in early infancy.

If an infant is raised in a neglectful environment and is not comforted or soothed during distress, the infant will most likely be delayed in:

c. the regulation of emotions

Kyoko is 13 months old and can understand about 50 words but can say only about 10 words. Kyoko's __________ vocabulary is more developed than her __________ vocabulary.

c. receptive; spoken

Babies have three types of cries. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

b. the hunger cry

The part of the neuron that carries signals toward the cell body is called a(n):

b. dendrite.

Stranger anxiety is negatively correlated with:

a. proximity to mother.

A tiny gap that is found between two or more neurons is called a(n):

d. synapse.

Which of the following would Erik Erikson be most likely to recommend about soothing a crying infant?

b. Pick up the baby and soothe him or her so that a healthy sense of trust develops

The peak of synaptic overproduction in the prefrontal cortex takes place at around __________ of age.

c. 1 year

Which of the following statements about temperament is TRUE?

c. Temperament is a biologically based but evolving aspect of behavior.

Nine-month-old Tyler is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Tyler will most likely:

c. touch the spot on the mirror, because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose.

By a child's second birthday, his or her brain is approximately __________ of the weight of an adult's brain.

b. 75%

Newborn infants can habituate to repeated:

d. sights, sounds, smells, and touches.

According to John Bowlby, at what age do infants/children begin to take into consideration the feelings of others before acting?

c. 24 months

According to Jerome Kagan (2002, 2003), temperament can be classified by focusing on

c. differences between children who are shy and timid and those who are sociable and bold.

A theory that views motor development as a means for perceiving and acting is known as:

a. dynamic systems theory

Babies have three types of cries. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

b. the hunger cry

A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli is called a(n):

a. reflexive smile.

Which of the following would Erik Erikson be most likely to recommend about soothing a crying infant?

b. Pick up the baby and soothe him or her so that a healthy sense of trust develops.

The average American newborn is __________ long and weighs _________.

b. 20 inches; 7½ pounds

Schemes are:

a. actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.

Robert Fantz, during his work with infants in the "looking chamber," discovered that 2-day-old infants prefer to look at:

c. both faces and patterned stimuli.

Two-month-old Trey is crying loudly. His cry starts with a piercing shrill sound. Then there is a long period during which Trey holds his breath (turning red), and then the next crying sound comes out. This type of cry indicates that Trey is:

a. in pain.

A nerve cell in the brain is also called a(n):

d. neuron

How do child-care programs for children in low-income families compare with child care available to children in families of higher economic status?

c. A majority of child care in the first three years of life is of unacceptably low quality, but infants from low-income families have lower-quality child care than infants from higher-income families.

Of the following infants, who is MOST at risk for SIDS?

a. Aimee; her mother smokes

Language is made up of:

d. all of these.

The peak of synaptic overproduction in the prefrontal cortex takes place at around __________ of age

c. 1 year

Mary often plays the game peek-a-boo with her baby. Initially, Mary covers her baby and then removes the cover, registering "surprise" at the baby's reappearance. After a time, her baby does the covering and uncovering. This is an example of:

b. scaffolding.

According to the textbook, many deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by:

a. reducing poverty and improving nutrition, sanitation, education, and health services.

Developmentally appropriate practices at the kindergarten level are likely to be:

a. child-centered.

Project __________ is a program designed to attend to the unique educational needs of children from birth through three years of age.

a. Early Head Start

When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student, it is called:

c. scaffolding

Bernard just brought home his report card and placed it on the television set. Bernard told his dad that he was required to bring the card back to school tomorrow with the signature of one of his parents. Bernard's dad told him to move out of the way because he could not see the TV. The next morning, Bernard found his report card where he left it, unsigned. He signed his dad's name and put it in his backpack. Bernard's dad is most likely a(n):

d. neglectful parent.

Blanche is 4 years old. What would Blanche most likely say if you asked her to describe who she is?

b. "I have brown hair, and I have a bicycle."

What have been found to be the two most important contributors to height differences among children worldwide?

d. ethnic origin and nutrition

Which of the following countries has the highest percentage of single-parent families?

c. United States

Howie and his little sister, Stephie, are each given one large cookie. The mother breaks Stephie's cookie into four pieces to help her eat it more easily. Howie immediately begins to cry and says that it isn't fair for Stephie to get so many cookies when he only has one. Howie is showing a lack of:

b. conservation

The psychoanalytic theory of gender states that children should identify with the gender identity of the same sex parent at about age

c. 5 or 6 years

Which parenting style leads to social incompetence in children?

d. neglectful

Project __________ is a program designed to break the cycle of poverty and poor education for children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds.

d. Head Start

Jennie is in third grade and is tempted to cheat on a test but chooses not to because she knows that it would be wrong. According to the psychoanalytic theory of moral development, what is responsible for keeping Jennie from doing wrong?

a. guilt from her superego

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

a. Girls are more likely than boys to associate together in larger groups

Overall, the effects of television on children's development are:

c. some positive, some negative.

Ursula just brought home her report card. She earned Cs and Ds in all of her classes. Ursula's mom's first response was "Oh, you must be very disappointed." Then, the two of them sat down and tried to determine why she was having difficulty and what they could do to help her get her grades up. They decided that Ursula would start seeing a tutor after school. Ursula's mom is most likely a(n):

b. authoritative parent.

From whose theory of cognitive development was the concept of sensorimotor play derived?

c. Jean Piaget

The prefrontal cortex is involved in tasks of:

c. maintaining attention to tasks.

In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement:

a. are irrelevant for the total amount.

According to Lev Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD), learning is:

d. a social activity between a less knowledgeable child, and another adult or child who is more knowledgeable

Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4-year-olds have more highly developed:

b. fine motor skills.

With regard to family processes, which of the following patterns has been supported by research?

a. disequilibrium immediately after the divorce, then restabilization 2 years later

In general terms, the preschool child's understanding of self is:

a. concrete.

Same-sex boy peer groups are characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT:

a. cooperative play.

What have been found to be the two most important contributors to height differences among children worldwide?

d. ethnic origin and nutrition

Using props, plots, and roles in play is characteristic of:

c. pretense/symbolic play.

Jean Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational thought, so named because he believed that:

a. children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought.

Which of the following is TRUE of Lev Vygotsky's educational applications?

d. Practical teaching should begin toward the upper limit of the zone of proximal development (ZPD).

Overall, the effects of television on children's development are:

c. some positive, some negative.

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