Social Studies Final

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articles of Confederation

Created in 1777, by the first American Congress, created a loose alliance of the 13 states


a document that sets out the laws, principles, organization, and processes of a government

Northwest Ordinance

Enacted in 1787, by Congress, set up a government for the Northwest territory, guarenteed basic rights to the settles, and oulawed slavery. Also provided for the vast region to be divided into seperate territories in the future.

Bill of Rights

List of freedoms that the government promises to protect.

Virginia Plan

called for a strong national government with three branches of government. the legislature would be broken up into two houses seats would be awarded by population, under the confederation, each state, regardless of pop. only had one vote in congress.

Legislative branch

branch of government that passes laws

Executive branch

the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws

Judicial branch

the division of the federal government that is made up of the national courts; interprets laws, punishes criminals, and settles disputes between states

New Jersey Compromise

it provided for a legislature that had only one house, each state, would have one vote in the legislature.


To settle a disagreement by having each side give up something

3/5ths compromise

southerners wanted to include slaves in pop. count, northerners disagreed, so, 3/5 of the slaves would be counted in the pop.

The great compromise

Passed on July 16th,A state's representation in the House of Representation, the lower house, would be based on population; In the upper house, The senate, two senators for each state; all bills would originate in the house; direct taxes on states were to be assessed according to population

Magna Carta

passed in 1215, contained two basic ideas that helped shape both British and American government., signed by King John of Endland in is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights.

Seperation of powers

power is devided among different branches of government to keep any person or group from geting too much power.


Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.


opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states

Ex. of Federalists

John Jay, John Adams, and Alexander Hamilton

Ex. of Antifederalists

Patrick Henry


to change


To give up

Form a more perfect Union

link everyone together and become closer

Establish Justice

set up a uniform system to settle disputes

Insure domestic tranquillity

peace and order at home

Provide for the common defense

military under civilian control

promote the general welfare

promote the well-being of all its citizens

secure the blessings of liberty

secure the freedom of everyone

Checks and balences

each branch of government has the power to check, or limit the action of the other two

popular sovereignty

the peoplw have the right to alter ot abolish their government

electoral collage

complex system for electing the president

civic responsibilty

voting,obeying laws, defending the nation, serving on a jury, serving the community, and being informed

Nuetrality Proclamation

Washington's declaration in April 1792 that the U.S. would not take sides in the war. it also forbade Americans from aiding either Britain of France.


persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers

Ben Franklin

A delegate from Pennsylvania and proposed the "Albany Plan of the Union" as a way to strengthen colonies.

National Debt

the total amount of money that a government owes to others



Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

Jay's Treaty

Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley


opposing groups within a party

pinckney treaty

In 1795, President Washington sent Thomas Pickney to find a way to keep the mississippi port open. In this treaty, Spain agreeed to let Americans ship their goods down the Mississippi and store them in New Orleans. This worked until in 1800, Spain sold Louisiana territory back to france.


a United States warship larger than a destroyer and smaller than a cruiser. It was fast-moving and had many guns

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

In 1798 and 1799, These stated that a state had the right to declare a law unconstiutional, or nullify a law, within its borders. These were written by Jefferson and Madison to resist the Alien and Sedition Acts.

Judiciary Act

A 1789 law that created the structure of the Supreme Court, which required one Chief Justice and 5 Associate justices and set up a system of district courts and circuit courts for the nation. Decisions made in these lower courts could be appealed to by the Supreme Court.

Treaty of Greenville

In 1795, leaders of the Miamis and othe Indian nations signed this treaty which stated, that they would give up land that would later be part of Ohio in ruturn for 20,000 and a promise for more money of the stay peaceful.


the opposite of an abolitionist, pro-slavery whites who defended slavery as a positive good, supporters of Andrew Jackson

old Republicans

people should have political power, favored state governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpertation of the government, liked the French, disliked the national bank and the tariff.

new republicans

1st= Abe Lincoln, opposed slavey and the first to take a stong stand about it.


led by Alexander Hamilton, believed that upper class should lead the nation, liked federal government, liked manufacturing, shipping and trade, loose interpertion, like british, national bank and tariff.


Supported Adams and his programs for national growth. wanted Federal government to spur the economy.


a private meeting of party leaders to choose candidates for office

Alien Acts

The president could expel any alien thought to be dangerous. The time before comming a citizen went for 5 to 14 yrs.

Sedition Acts

citizens can be fined or Jailed if they critized the government or officals.

Louisiana Purchase

Livingston and Monroe went to talleyrand and offered money for Mississippi but talleyrand asked for 15 million in return for all of louisiana and they accepted

Embargo Act

In 1807, Jefferson cut off supplies on sugar, tea and molasses and all other inports and exports in the hopes of hurting Britain and france, but it hurt America even more

Nonintercourse Act

In 1809, it replaced the embargo act. It allowed trade with every country except britain and france

Treaty of Ghent

December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

War Hawks

Members of Congress form the South and the West who called for war with Britain prior to the War of 1812


Merchants from New England who dominated costal trade (during the triangular trade) of slaves, rum and other goods this was their nickname which implied that they were clever and hardworking.


the right to vote; during the 1820s more people gained suffrage, in some western states men over 21 could vote. Many americans didn't have suffrage, such as women, Native Amer., and most African Amer.


cancel, a federal law that a state considered to be unconstitutional, after hearing this SC became infuriated about the present tariff, they nullified the tariff and threatened 2 secede if challenged

Spoils System

the practice of rewarding supporters w/ gov. jobs. Jackson fired most of his official and replaced them with his supporters, he said he was serving democracy by letting more citizens take part in the gov. he said this would prevent a small group of wealthy men from controlling the gov.

Kitchen Cabinet

a group of unofficial advisors, a group of Jackson's supporters who included Democratic leaders and newspaper editors they had a good sense of the nation's mood, they met in the kitchen

Indian Removal Act

It moved many Native Amer. to move West of Mississippi, In 1838 the us army drove 15,000 Cherokees westward. Thousands of Cherokees died on the march the west. It became known as the trail of tears.

Depression/ Panic of 1837

a period when business declines and many people lose their jobs. Van Buren was blamed b/c he believed in laissez affair Panic:After Van Buren took office, state banks could lend money unlimitedly they kept printing paper money often not backed by silver or gold. Before leaving office Jackson ordered that anyone buying property had to buy it w/ silver or gold. People rushed to banks who ran out and were forced to close.

Mudslinging (Campaign of 1840)

The use of insults to attack an opponents reputation. Van Buren v. William Henry Harrison. Both candidates used mudslinging, rallies, banquets, and entertainment, this was new. Harrison won

Nominating Convention

where delegates from all states chose a party's candidate from President. First used in 1830s. Now citizen could participate in elections

Nullification Crisis/Tariff of Abominations

Anger over the current tariff infuriated SC and they passed then Nullification Act, which declared the tariff unconstitutional and they threatened to secede if challenged a new tariff was made and the crisis was over


First pulled cars by horse and mules but then the locomotive was invent. It encountered many problems like soft roadbeds and weak bridges that often led to accidents. The smoke stack also belched hot embers that burned nearby buildings and passenger's clothing. These problems were eventually overcome and they became popular.

steam powered machines

These machines in factories increased the production rate of many materials. The factories could be built anywhere and no longer ran on water power

Unions/Factory Conditions

They were groups of artisans of the same trade who protested for shorter workdays, higher wages, and better working conditions. The conditions were terrible. It was terribly hot in the summer and freezing cold in the winter. Entire families often had to work in factories and the machine had no safety devices

Industrial Revolution

A period of time when industry became very popular. Many invention mad this possible like the spinning jenny and a water powered loom.

Immigrants in the 1840s and 50s

Between the 40s and 50s over 4 million immigrants entered the US. They came from Ireland because of a potato famine, Germany because harsh weather caused famine thousands also had to flee when rebellions failed for democratic reforms.


wealthy families in the South. They made huge amounts of money from cotton. They owned over 50 slaves. They became political leaders too.

American Colonization Society

a group who proposed to end slavery by setting up an independent colony in Africa for freed slaves. They founded the nation of Liberia, with the help of President Monroe. Only few thousand settled in Africa

Free Soil Party

A party formed in 1838 whose main goal was to keep slavery out of the western territories. Only a few wanted to end slavery in the South.


Party developed in 1854 that was made because none of the other parties would take a stand on slavery. The wanted to keep slavery out of the western territories. Their first candidate was Lincoln

Seneca Falls Convention

A meeting of 200 women and 40 men on the topic of Women's Rights. They approved a Declaration of Sentiments and declare all men and women are created equal.THey decided to demand that women be treated equal at work, school, and church and they could vote

Dorothea Dix

A woman who visited a prison and was appalled at the bad conditions. Some of the prisoners weren't criminals but mentally ill. She went all over the country to legislatures and persuaded them to create mental hospitals. She also persuaded them to reform prisons such as keeping only one or two people in a cell

Temperance Movement

a campaign against alcohol abuse that was led by women because they knew alcohol could lead to wife beating, child abuse, and breakup of families.

Underground Railroad

A network of black and white abolitionists who secretly helped slaves escape to freedom in the North or Canada. One "conductor" was Harriet Tubman who escaped herself and returned 19 times to free over 300 slaves

Second Great Awakening

Its leaders stressed that individuals could save their souls rather than having salvation being predetermined To stir religious feelings preachers held revivals or huge outdoor meetings

Education Reform in 1840s

Women believed that education was a key to equality. Emma Willard opened a high school for girls in Troy, NY. The gils there studied math and physics. Mary Lyon opened Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in MA in 1837. It was the 1st girls college in the US Now women could get better jobs such as medicine, astronomy, and many other careers

Hudson River School

A group of American artists that painted vivid landscapes of NY's Hudson River region.

Kansa Nebraska Act and Bloody Kansas (John Brown)

A bill propose by Senator Stephen Douglas that proposed the Nebraska territory be divided into 2 territories Kansas and Nebraska. The settlers would then be able to decide the issue of slavery by popular sovereignty. When the bill passed everyone rushed to Kansas. The abolitionists and proslavery men wanted to be dominate in the territory. They both attacked each other. John Brown, an abolitionist, decided to attack the enemy. He killed 5 proslavery settlers in cold blood.

Dred Scott Decision

A court decision over the freedom of Scott after his master died and they had once lived in a free state, Wisconsin. It was denied and the Supreme Court said he was chattel. They also said Congress had no right to outlaw slavery in the territories, so the Missouri Compromise was therefore Unconstitutional. In 1857

Missouri Compromise

A bill introduce by Senator Henry Clay that Missouri became a slave state and Maine a free one. All states above the 36°30' N. line, besides Missouri, are free, and below are slave. In 1819

Compromise of 1850

A Compromise in 1850 that let CA be admitted as a free state. The condition were as follows: It divided the mexican cession into NM and UT which used pop. sovereignty. It ended slave trade in DC. A stricter Fugitive slave law. Settled a border dispute between NM and TX.

Harriet Beecher Stowe/Uncle Tom's Cabin

The Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin. A book about a slave who wouldn't tell where a fugitive was hiding. He was beaten to death. The north loved it but the south thought it didn't show the true picture of slavery.

Abolitionist vs. Border Ruffians

People who wanted slavery to end in the US. The Border ruffians were proslavery people. They both wanted to dominate Kansas and fought over it. The proslavery won and elected a governor and legislature the abolitionist wouldn't accept the laws they made so they elected their own governor and legislature.

Moderates/Popular Sovereignty

Moderates were people who disagreed with pop. sovereignty and popular sovereignty is when and state or territory votes on whether or not to allow slavery

political parties/election of 1860

The parties were the Republicans, who were against slavery in the territories. Democrats, who didn't take a strong stand against slavery. Republicans: Lincoln; Democrats: Douglas. Lincoln and Douglas had many debates. Slavery was an important issue. Douglas believed in popular sovereignty and Lincoln believed slavery was wrong. Lincoln won.

Abraham Lincoln

a Illinois legislature representative who decided to run for a senate seat but lost. He ran for President in 1860 against Stephen Douglas and won. He was assassinated during his second term

Martial Law

rule by the army instead of an elected government. It was declared by Lincoln in response to pro-Confederate mobs attacking union troops in Baltimore

Habeas Corpus

the right that no person can be held in prison w/o first being charged w/ a specific crime. Lincoln suspended this b/c of draft riots in major cities. He said the Constitution allowed him to deny the people of their rights when in the cases of rebellion or invasion


a rise in prices and a decrease in the value of money. This happened during the Civil War b/c the North made to much money because they needed more

Battle of Shiloh


Battle of Fredericksburg

Dec. 13, 1862. The Confederates won and this was the Union's worst defeat to this point: Gen. Lee vs. Gen. Burnside

Battle of Vicksburg

Its was a siege from MAy 1863 to July 4, 1863, when Johnston surrenders. Gen. Grant vs. Gen. Johnston. Grant captures Mississippi River and cuts off TX, LA, + AR

Battle of Chancellorsville

May 1863 Confederates win but loose Stonewall Jackson

Battle of Gettysburg

July 1-3 1863 Union wins. Mead vs. Lee

Battle of Antietam

Sept. 16-18, 1862. Bloodiest battle of civil war 23,000 casualties It was a draw. Gen. Lee v. Gen. McClellan


They last of many generals for the union he was the commanding general for the Union army of the West so he was moved to the East b/c the other Union general weren't very good


Confederate General for the whole war he was very good in the eyes of the Confederates b/c they never took him out of the position

Clara Barton

A nurse in the Union Army who later founded the American Red Cross

Northern Weaknesses and Strengths

Weaknesses: African Americans are segregated from whites, inflation occur and weapons and such cost more, many troops aren't familiar with guns,Draft riots in Major cities, Lincoln didn't know war, great succession of commanding generals; Strengths: Has railroads, African Americans can fight for the Union, More weapons b/c of industrial revolution, Has a navy, 22 mil. in pop. Do a draft

Confederate Weaknesses and Strengths

Weaknesses: Lack of railroads, The slaves can't join the fight 3-4 mil. Not a lot of federal funds, Inflation occurs, only 5-6 mil. whites can fight. no navy; Strengths: Most of fighting occurs in South and they know the land, men were familiar w/ guns, Used wooded areas as cover, starts draft, Davis knows war

Union goals

Use navy to blockade southern ports, attack Richmond, Seize MIssissippi River

Confederate Goals

To fight a defensive war, Build up $ for weapons and sell cotton to foreign countries, capture D.C.

War of Southern Independence/States Rights

Civil War Known as this in the South b/c they wanted freedom from the North and they started a war over it. They believed in states rights while the North believed in federal Gov..

State Governments

Republicans who were led by Jefferson, Emphasized agriculture, were pro French, opposed the national bank and protective tariff strict interpretation of Constitution

Federal Governments

Federalists: led by Hamilton, emphasized manufacturing, pro British, favored national bank and protective tariff. Loose interpretation of Constitution

George Washington

The first President of the United States who was also the Commanding General for the Colonies in the Revolutionary War. He set many important precedents such as only serving 2 terms and setting up the first cabinet

John Adams

The second president of the US who was a Federalist he had to deal with a nation wanting war with France for attacking their ships. He ended the matter by building frigates and France stopped.

Thomas Jefferson

The vice president for John Adams who was a Democratic Republican they often disagreed because they were in different parties. Became the 3rd president in 1800. Jefferson buys Louisiana from the French and sends Lewis and Clark to go scout it out. The war of 1812 also happens after Jefferson steps down. Jefferson didn't put any money into defense so they only have 16 ships

John Marshall

The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court appointed by Adams. During the case of Marbury vs. Madison, when Marbury was appointed a judge the Republicans denied it and brought it to court. He ruled against Marbury and set a precedent known as judicial review - which gave the Supreme Court the power to reject laws passed by Congress that they declared unconstitutional

James Madison

The 4th President who had to deal with the War of 1812 Jefferson didn't put any money into defense so the US only had 16 ships.

Lewis and Clark

Two men asked by Jefferson to lead an expedition to scout out the Louisiana Purchase. They went all the way to the Pacific Ocean with the help of an Native American Sacagawea.

John Quincy Adams

An unpopular Persident who wanted to build everything for the rich like a national university, these were turned down put his plan for a national road and some canals passed

War of 1812

A war between Britain and the US because Britain kept boarding and impressing American Sailors. The US wasn't ready for war, only having 16 ships and a small and ill equipped army. One famous ship was the USS Constitution the cannon balls seemed to bounce off the sides.

Battle of Lake Erie (War of 1812)

Because he had no fleet, Captain Oliver Hazard Perry decided design and build his own ships. His ship was destroyed in the battle, but he rowed over to another ship and commanded from there. The US won.

Battle of New Orleans (War of 1812)

When the British attacked New Orleans and fought against Andrew Jackson. The americans dug trenches. Only 7 Americans died compared to 2,000 British. The Battle sadly didn't count because 2 weeks earlier the US and Britain had signed a treaty in Europe.

Battle of Tippecanoe (War with Tecumseh and the Prophet)

When Governor William Henry Harrison Marched 1,000 troops against prophet's town on the Tippecanoe creek. The prophet led a surprise attack of Harrison's troops, but Harrison came out defeating the Prophet's troops and destroying Prophetstown

Andrew Jackson

The 7th President of the US who was known for the Battle of New Orleans. he was known for his Spoils System and his Kitchen Cabinet. He also closed the Bank of the US by vetoing their charter.

Marbury vs. Madison

A 1803 case when Marbury was made a judge the night before Adams left office. This angered Republicans and Jefferson had Sec. of State James Madison not deliver the letters of confirmation. Marbury sued Madison and the Supreme Court ruled against Marbury saying the Judiciary act was unconstitutional and the Constitution didn't give the Supreme Court the power to judge federal officials

Nat Turner

An African American Preacher who led his followers on a mission to take revenge on their plantation owners. He killed 57 whites but was later captured hung.

Walt Whitman

A poet in the mid-1800s who only wrote 1 book, Leaves of Grass, but added to it over a period of 27 years. He had great faith in the common people. And his poetry celebrated democracy.

Henry Clay

The senator that was resonsible for the Missouri Compromise. He also was responsible for the Compromise of 1850.

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