Ch 24 EMT

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69 terms · Emergency 10ed Orange book

A partial-thickness burn involves the outer layer of skin and a portion of the:

dermal layer.

A 5-year-old female pulled a pot of boiling water from the stove. She has superficial and partial-thickness burns to her head and anterior trunk. What percentage of her body surface area has been burned?

30%

An injury that separates various layers of soft tissue, resulting in complete detachment or a flap of skin, is called a(n):

laceration.

Burns to pediatric patients are generally considered more serious than burns to adults because:

pediatric patients have more surface area relative to total body mass.

All of the following body structures are lined with mucous membranes, EXCEPT for the:

lips.

In addition to external bleeding, the MOST significant risk that an open soft-tissue injury exposes a patient to is:

infection.

A 56-year-old male has an incomplete avulsion to his right forearm. After controlling any bleeding from the wound, you should:

replace the avulsed flap to its original position and cover it with a sterile dressing.

The sebaceous glands produce sebum, a material that:

waterproofs the skin and keeps it supple.

Patients with full-thickness (third-degree) burns generally do not complain of pain because:

the nerve endings have been destroyed.

A laceration:

is a jagged cut caused by a sharp object or blunt force trauma.

Which of the following areas of the body has the thinnest skin?

ears

In addition to severe bleeding, the MOST life-threatening complication associated with an open neck injury is:

an air embolism.

As you approach a young male who was involved in an industrial accident, you note that his eyes are closed and that he is not moving. You can see several large contusions to his arms, a laceration to his forehead with minimal bleeding, and a closed deformity to his right leg. You should:

open his airway and assess his breathing status.

A 39-year-old male was struck in the head by a baseball during a game. He is confused, has a large hematoma in the center of his forehead, and cannot remember the events preceding the injury. After manually stabilizing his head and assessing his airway, you should:

administer high-flow oxygen.

When treating a partial-thickness burn, you should:

avoid the use of creams, lotions, or antiseptics.

According to the rule of palm method for estimating the extent of a patient's burns, the palm of the patient's hand is equal to _____ of his or her total BSA.

1%

A 17-year-old male was shot in the right anterior chest during an altercation with a gang member. As your partner is applying 100% oxygen, you perform a rapid secondary assessment and find an open chest wound with a small amount of blood bubbling from it. You should:

apply an occlusive dressing to the wound and continue your assessment.

Which of the following is of LEAST importance when initially assessing the severity of a burn?

known drug allergies

Which of the following statements regarding crush syndrome is correct?

Compromised arterial blood flow leads to crush syndrome and can occur when an area of the body is trapped for longer than 4 hours.

When a person is exposed to a cold environment:

peripheral vessels constrict and divert blood away from the skin.

A 33-year-old male sustained an abdominal evisceration to the left lower quadrant of his abdomen after he was cut with a large knife. After appropriately managing his ABCs and assessing him for other life-threatening injuries, how you should care for his wound?

Cover it with moist, sterile gauze and secure with an occlusive dressing.

In order for electricity to flow through the body and cause damage:

a complete circuit must exist between the electrical source and the ground.

Which of the following open soft-tissue injuries is limited to the superficial layer of the skin and results in the least amount of blood loss?

abrasion

Which of the following processes occurs during the inflammation phase of the healing process?

The immune system releases histamines, which cause vasodilation and increased capillary permeability, resulting in local redness and swelling.

In which of the following patients should you remove an impaled object?

a pulseless and apneic patient with a knife impaled in the back

An abdominal evisceration:

occurs when organs protrude through an open wound.

When caring for a patient whose arm is covered with a dry chemical, you should:

brush away the chemical before flushing with water.

A 38-year-old male was electrocuted while attempting to wire a house. Your assessment reveals that he is unresponsive, pulseless, and apneic. A coworker has shut off the power to the house. You should:

begin CPR and apply the AED.

Burns are classified according to:

depth and extent.

With regard to the pediatric rule of nines, the:

legs are proportionately smaller than an adult's.

three types of soft tissue injuries:

1) closed injuries-soft tissue damage occurs beneath the skin or mucous membrane but the surface remains intact
2) open injuries- there is a break in the surface of the skin or the mucous membrane, exposing the deeper tissue to potential contamination
3) burns-soft tissue receives more energy than it can absorb without injury; the source of this energy can be thermal, toxic chemicals, electricity or radiation

closed soft-tissue injuries are characterized by...

history of blunt trauma, pain at the site of injury, swelling beneath the skin, discoloration. Contusions, hematomas, and crushing injuries are classified as closed injuries. Treat a closed soft-tissue injury by applying the mnemonic RICES-Rest, Ice, Compressions, Elevation, Splinting

Open injuries differ from closed injuries

protective layer of skin is damaged, abrasions, lacerations, avulsions, and penetrating wounds are classified as open injuries. treat an open soft tissue injury by applying direct pressure with a sterile bandage using a roller bandage, and splint the extremity

burns are classified primarily by the..

depth and extent of the burn injury adn the body are involved

burns are considered to be...

superficial, partial-thickness or full-thickness based on the depth involved

when providing emergency care for burns, do the following;

-use standard precautions to protect yourself from potentially contaminated body fluid and to protect the patient from potential infection
-ensure you have cooled the burned area to prevent further cell damage
-remove jewelry and constrictive clothing; never attempt to remove any synthetic material that may have melted into the burned skin
-ensure open and clear airway, provide high flow oxygen
-place sterile dressings over the burned area(s); prevent hypothermia by covering the patient with a clean blanket

abrasion

loss or damage of the superficial layer of skin as a result of a body part rubbing or scraping across a rough or hard surface

amputation

injury in which part of the body is completely severed

avulsion

injury in which soft tissue is torn completely loose or is hanging as a flap

burns

injuries in which soft-tissue is torn completely loose or is hanging as a flap

closed injuries

injuries in which damage occurs beneath the skin or mucous membrane but the surface remains intact

compartment syndrome

swelling in a confined space that produces dangerous pressure; may cut of blood flow or damage sensitive tissue

contact burn

a burn caused by direct contact with a hot object

contamination

presence of infective organisms or foreign bodies such as, dirt, gravel, or metal

contusion

bruise from an injury that causes bleeding beneath the skin without breaking the skin

crushing injury

an injury that occurs when a great amount of force is applied to the body

crush syndrome

significant metabolic derangement that develops when crushed extremities or body parts remain trapped for prolonged periods. This can lead to renal failure and death

dermis

inner layer of the skin, containing hair follicles. sweat glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels

ecchymosis

discoloration associated with a closed wound; signifies bleeding

epidermis

outer layer of skin that acts as a watertight protective covering

evisceration

displacement of organs outside the body

fascia

fiberlike connective tissue that covers arteries veins, tendons, and ligaments

flame burn

burn caused by an open flame

flash burn

burn caused by exposure to very intense heat, such as in an explosion

full-thickness (third-degree) burns

burns that affects all skin layers and may affect the subcutaneous layers, muscle, bone, and internal organs, leaving the area dry, leathery, and white , dark brown, or charred.

hematoma

blood collected within the body's tissues or in a body cavity

incision

sharp, smooth cut

laceration

jagged, open wound

mucous membranes

linings of body cavities and passages that are in direct contact with the outside environment

occlusive dressings

dressings made of petrolatum (Vaseline) gauze, aluminum foil, or plastic that prevents air and liquids from entering or exiting a wound

open injuries

injuries in which there is a break in the surface of the skin or the mucous membrane exposing deeper tissue to potential contamination

partial-thickness (second-degree) burns

burns affecting the epidermis aand some portion of the dermis but not the subcutaneous tissue, characterized by blisters adn skin that is white to red, moist, and mottled

penetrating wound

an injury resulting from a sharp, pointed object

rabid

an animal infected with rabies

rule of nines

system that assigns percentages to sections of teh body, allowing calculation of the amount of skin surface involved in teh burn area

scald burn

burn caused by hot liquids

steam burn

burn caused by exposure to hot steam

superficial (first degree) burns

burns affecting only the epidermis, characterized by skin that is red but not blistered or actually burned through

thermal burns

burns caused by heat

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