Biology 1202 Final Ch. 33

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A sponge's structural materials (spicules, spongin) are manufactured by the

amoebocytes

How many of the following can be observed in the mesohyl of various undisturbed sponges at one time or another?
1. amoebocytes
2. spicules
3. spongin
4. zygotes
5. choanocytes

four of these

Which chemical is synthesized by some sponges and acts as an antibiotic?

cribrostatin

In terms of food capture, which sponge cell is most similar to the cnidocyte of a cnidarian?

choanocyte

Sponges are most accurately described as

aquatic filter feeders

How many of the following are characteristics of at least some members of the phylum Cnidaria?
1. a gastrovascular cavity
2. a polyp stage
3. a medusa stage
4. cnidocytes
5. a pseudocoelom

four of these

Which of the following is true of members of the phylum Cnidaria?

they may use a gastrovascular cavity as a hydrostatic skeleton

The members of which clade in the phylum Cnidaria occur only as polyps?

anthozoa

Which clade in the phylum Cnidaria includes "jellies" with rounded (as opposed to boxlike) medusae?

scyphozoa

Corals are most closely related to which group?

sea anemones

Which characteristic(s) is (are) shared by both cnidarians and flatworms?

a digestive system with a single opening

The organ(s) of respiratory gas exchange in oligochaetes is (are)

the skin

Against which hard structure do the circular and longitudinal muscles of annelids work?

hydrostatic skeleton

The excretory organs of annelids are

metanphridia

Planarians lack dedicated respiratory and circulatory systems because

none of their cells are far removed from the gastrovascular cavity or from the external environment

What would be the most effective method of reducing the incidence of blood flukes in a human population?

reduce the freshwater snail population

The larvae of many common tapeworm species that infect humans are usually found

encysted in the muscles of an animal, such as a cow or pig

While sampling marine plankton in a lab, a student encounters large numbers of fertilized eggs. The student rears some of the eggs in the laboratory for further study and finds that the blastopore becomes the mouth. The embryo develops into a trochophore larva and eventually has a true coelom. These eggs probably belonged to a(n)

mollusc

A brachiopod can be distinguished from a bivalve by the presence of

a lophophore

If a lung were to be found in a mollusc, where would it be located?

mantle cavity

Which mollusc clade includes members that undergo embryonic torsion?

gastropods

A terrestrial mollusc without a shell belongs to which clade?

gastropods

A radula is present in members of which clade(s)?

both chitins and gastropods

Which of the following is found only among annelids?

a clitellum

Which of the following is a characteristic of nematodes?

they have only longitudinal muscles

Humans most frequently acquire trichinosis by

eating undercooked pork

How many of the following can be used to distinguish a nematode worm from an annelid worm?
1. type of body cavity
2. number of muscle layers in the body wall
3. presence of segmentation
4. number of embryonic tissue layers
5. shape of worm in cross-sectional view

three of these

Nematode worms and annelid worms share which of the following features?

use of fluid in the body cavity as a hydrostatic skeleton

A student observes a wormlike organism crawling about on dead organic matter. Later, the organism sheds its outer covering. One possibility is that the organism is a larval insect (like a maggot). However, it might be a member of the phylum ________, and one way to distinguish between the two possibilities is by looking for ________.

nematoda; a circulatory system

The heartworms that can accumulate within the hearts of dogs and other mammals have a pseudocoelom, an alimentary canal, and an outer covering that is occasionally shed. To which phylum does the heartworm belong?

nematoda

Infection with which parasite might cause excessive elasticity in human skeletal muscles?

trichinella worms

Which of the following are entirely, or partly, composed of calcium carbonate?

coral animals' exoskeletons

How many of the following are characteristics of arthropods?
1. protostome development
2. bilateral symmetry
3. a pseudocoelom
4. three embryonic germ layers
5. a closed circulatory system

three of these

Among the invertebrate phyla, phylum Arthropoda is unique in possessing members that have

wings

A shared derived characteristic for members of the arthropod subgroup that includes spiders would be the presence of

chelicerae

You find a small animal with eight legs crawling up your bedroom wall. Closer examination will probably reveal that this animal has

simple, but not compound, eyes

What distinguishes complete metamorphosis from incomplete metamorphosis in insects?

the radically different appearance between adults and earlier life stages

A terrestrial animal species is discovered with the following larval characteristics: exoskeleton, system of tubes for gas exchange, and modified segmentation. A knowledgeable zoologist should predict that the adults of this species would also feature

an open circulatory system

The possession of two pairs of antennae is a characteristic of

crustaceans

One should expect to find the "9 + 2 pattern" of microtubules in association with the feeding apparatus of which of the following?

sponges

Which of the following is a characteristic of adult echinoderms?

bilateral symmetry

Which of the following describe(s) echinoderms?

tubefeet provide motility in most species

A stalked, sessile marine organism has several feathery feeding structures surrounding an opening through which food enters. The organism could potentially be a cnidarian, a lophophorate, a tube-dwelling worm, a crustacean, or an echinoderm. Which of the following traits, if found in this organism, would allow the greatest certainty of identification?

a water vascular system

Which of the following animal groups is entirely aquatic?

echniodermata

In a tide pool, a student encounters an organism with a hard outer covering that contains much calcium carbonate, an open circulatory system, and gills. The organism could potentially be a crab, a shrimp, a barnacle, or a bivalve. The presence of which of the following structures would allow for the most certain identification of the organism?

a mantle

Which of the following is a diploblastic phylum of aquatic predators?

cnidaria

Sea slugs can obtain nematocysts by preying on sea

anemones

Which structure do sea slugs use to feed on their prey?

a radula

By which structures are nematocysts most likely to reach the skin of sea slugs?

branches of the intestine

The nematocysts of sea slugs should be most effective at protecting individual sea slugs from predation if the predators

remove small bites of flesh from sea slugs, and have long term memory

According to the graph, during which season(s) of the year is the relationship between the sea slug and its dinoflagellates closest to being commensal?

winter

If we assume that carbon is the sole nutrient needed by sea slugs to drive their cellular respiration, then based on the graph, during which season(s) is it least necessary for P. ianthina to act as a chemoheterotroph?

summer

Aside from the density of dinoflagellates in P. ianthina skin, how many of the following factors can affect whether or not the endosymbiotic dinoflagellates promote the sea slug's survival (assuming latitudes above or below Earth's equator)?

1. day length
2. height of sun above the horizon
3. cloud cover
4. depth at which P. ianthina lives
5. water clarity

five of these

If the dinoflagellate-containing sea slug, P. ianthina, otherwise preys on coral animals, then it would be least surprising to find that

the coral prey harbor dinoflagellates in their tissues

The sea slug, Elysia chorotica, has no nematocysts or dinoflagellates but, rather, has "naked" chloroplasts in its skin. The chloroplasts are all that remain of the seaweed (Vaucheria sp.) that Elysia feeds upon. The chloroplasts are transferred to the skin; consequently, this slug is green. It spends most of its time basking in shallow water on the surface of seaweeds. How should we expect its chloroplasts to benefit the Elysia sea slug?
1. provide Elysia with fixed CO2
2. provide Elysia with fixed N2
3. provide Elysia with protective coloration

1 and 3

If 100,000 sea slug cells together contain 1.0 mg of protein, then what is the minimum number of dinoflagellates per sea slug cell that constitutes a "high," and therefore beneficial, population?

5 cells

The claws on the foremost trunk segment of centipedes have a function most similar to that of

cerata

The feet of certain insects, notably of female butterflies, have a function most similar to that of

rhinophores

The stingers of honeybees have a function most similar to that of

cerata

The spiracles and tracheae of insects have a function most similar to that of

dorsal plummules

The antennae of insects have a function most similar to that of

rhinophores

The lateral flaps of planaria heads have a function most similar to that of

rhinophores

The parapodia of polychaetes have a function most similar to that of

dorsal plummules

The spines of sea stars have a function most similar to that of

cerata

The small, thin extensions of the skin on the aboral surfaces of sea stars have a function most similar to that of

dorsal plummules

If nudibranch rhinophores are located at the anteriors of these sea slugs, then they contribute to the sea slugs'

cephalization

Nudibranchs usually have two rhinophores. However, if they had a single rhinophore, it could still carry out the function of two rhinophores, and with similar effectiveness, if this single rhinophore

had two branches, one directed to the left and the other to the right

The crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci, preys on the flesh of live coral. At times, these sea stars undergo poorly understood population explosions. What impact should such explosions have on those sea slugs that bear cerata (cerata contain nematocysts)? Population explosions of this sea star should

harm sea slugs by competing with them for food

The sharp, inch-long thorns of the crown-of-thorns sea star are its spines. These spines, unlike those of most other sea stars, contain a potent toxin. If it were discovered that crown-of-thorns sea stars do not make this toxin themselves, then the most likely alternative would be that this toxin is

derived from the nematocysts of its prey

The crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci, preys on the flesh of live coral. If coral animals are attacked by these sea stars, then what actually provides nutrition to the sea star, and which chemical (besides the toxin within their nematocysts) do the corals rely on for protection?

polyps; calcium carbonate

The reason their exoskeletons cannot protect the corals from sea stars is that the sea star

stomach can be everted, and can release digestive juices directly onto the corals

A natural predator of the crown-of-thorns sea star is a mollusc called the Giant Triton, Charonia tritonis. If the triton uses a radula to saw into the sea star, then to which clade should the triton belong?

gastropods

Which human profession is most analogous to the lifestyle of the sea slugs described in this scenario?

pirate

From this description, one can conclude that the organisms that have caught Sarah's attention are

insects

Sarah noticed the presence of many empty exoskeletons attached to emergent vegetation. These exoskeletons looked exactly like those of the largest of the "mystery organisms" she had seen in the pond. They also looked similar to the bodies of the dragonflies that patrolled the surface of the pond. If Sarah had learned a lot from her college biology class, what should she have concluded about the mysterious pond organisms?

they are larval dragonflies, destined to undergo incomplete metamorphosis

Sarah noticed the presence of many empty exoskeletons attached to emergent vegetation. These exoskeletons looked exactly like those of the largest of the "mystery organisms" she had seen in the pond. They also looked similar to the bodies of the dragonflies that patrolled the surface of the pond. If Sarah had learned a lot from her college biology class, what should she have concluded about the mysterious pond organisms?

sex organs

Sarah observed that the mystery pond organisms never come up to the pond's surface. If she catches one of these organisms and observes closely, perhaps dissecting the organism, she should find

gills

Sarah had learned that ancestral (Carboniferous era) dragonfly species were much larger than extant dragonfly species are, with wingspans of 70 cm. This struck her as odd, because she had also learned that one of the things that keeps insects small is their relatively inefficient respiratory system. Which two hypotheses might help account for the large size of ancestral dragonflies?
1. If the atmosphere during the Carboniferous era had featured a higher oxygen content than the modern atmosphere, then the tracheae might have been a sufficient means for oxygen delivery to the interior tissues.
2. If large size was a drawback, then the large dragonflies underwent extinction, which explains why all extant dragonflies are smaller.
3. If the ancestral dragonflies had possessed muscles that permitted effective ventilation of the tracheae, then the tracheae might have been a sufficient means for oxygen delivery to the interior tissues.
4. If ancestral dragonflies existed during greenhouse conditions, then they must have survived by decreasing their activity levels, such as no longer capturing prey in flight. Thus, for them, an ineffective respiratory system was sufficient.

1 and 3

One day, little Tommy (a student in an undersupervised class of 40 fifth graders) got the urge to pet Nemo (the clownfish), who was swimming among the waving petals of a pretty underwater "flower" that had a big hole in the midst of the petals. Tommy giggled upon finding that these petals felt sticky. A few hours later, Tommy was in the nurse's office with nausea and cramps. Microscopic examination of his fingers would probably have revealed the presence of

nematocytes

How many of the following organisms possess bilateral symmetry as adults?
1. sponges
2. molluscs
3. echinoderm
4. sea anemones
5. ectoprocts

four of these

If the teacher wanted to show the students what a lophophore is and how it works, the teacher would point out a feeding

ectoproct

The bivalves started to die one by one; only the undamaged shells remained. To keep the remaining bivalves alive, the teacher would have to remove the

sea star

If the teacher had used a dissecting microscope to examine the outer surfaces of the empty bivalve shells, the teacher would probably have seen marks that had been left by

tubefeet

The teacher was unaware of the difference between suspension feeding and predation. The teacher thought that providing live copepods (2 mm long) and feeder fish (2 cm long) would satisfy the dietary needs of all of the organisms. Consequently, which two organisms would have been among the first to starve to death (assuming they lack photosynthetic endosymbionts)?

bivalves and sponges

If the teacher had wanted to demonstrate that some invertebrates possess a closed circulatory system, the teacher should have removed and dissected a

polychaete

Had the teacher wanted to point out organisms that belong to the most successful animal phylum, the teacher should have chosen the

shrimp and copepods

The teacher and class were especially saddened when the colonial hydrozoan died. They had watched it carefully, and the unfortunate creature never even got to produce offspring by budding. Yet, everyone was elated when Tommy (now recovered) noticed a small colonial hydrozoan growing in a part of the tank far from the location of the original colony. The teacher was apparently unaware that these hydrozoans exhibit

a medusa stage

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