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Justinian Code

The uniform code created by a panel of 400 legal experts; it served the Byzantine Empire for 900 years

Hagia Sophia

The Church of "Holy Wisdom" built by Justinian in Constanipole; considered the crowning glory of his reign

Patriach

The term for the leading Bishop of Eastern Christianity

Icon

A religious image used by Eastern Christians to aid in their devotions

Slavs

People of the forests north of the Black Sea who were influenced by Greek Byzantine missionaries and traders

Alexander Nevsky

The prince and military hero of Novgorod; he advised fellow Rusian princes to cooperate with the Mongols

Seljuks

A migrating Turkish group that converted to Islam and Captured Baghdad, eventually occupying most of Anatolia

Malik Shah

The Seljuk sultan who built a great empire and took pride in supporting Persian artists and architects

Excommunication

The declaration that casts a person out of the Christian Church

Cyrillic

The Slavic alphabet created by Saints Cyril and Methodius in the ninth century

Vladimir

The ruler of Kiev who made his subjects join him in converting to Byzantine Christianity

Yaroslav the Wise

He ruled Kiev (1019-1054), forged trading alliances with Western Europe, and created a legal code

Ivan lll

The Russian prince of Moscow who openly challenged the Mongols and liberated Russia in a bloodless standoff

Czar

A Russian ruler, or emperor; from the Russian version of the word ''Caesar"

Vizier

A prime minister who served the Seljuk sultans

Omar Khayyam

Author, under the patronage of Malik Shah, of a famous set of poems called the Rubaiyat

Hippodrome

A stadium in Constantinople that could hold 60,000 spectators to watch chariot races and performance acts

Mese

The "Middle Way", or main street that ran through Constantinople; it was lined with merchants stalls

Empress Theodora

The most powerful woman in Byzantine history, she passed laws and advised her husband Justinian

Khanate of the Golden Horde

The Mongol empire that, after the fall of Kiev, ruled all of Southern Russia for 200 years

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