A&P - Endocrine and Blood

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The first step in hemostasis is __________

vascular spasm

What is the name of the protein found in erythrocytes that allows for respiratory gas transport?

hemoglobin

__________ is the situation when one hormone cannot exert its full effects without another hormone being present.

permissiveness

The most abundant leukocytes are __________.

neutrophils

The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the shafts of the long bones.

false

What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?

kidney

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.

the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

The stimuli causing endocrine glands to secrete their hormones in direct response to changing blood levels of certain critical ions and nutrients are called __________.

humoral stimuli

Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?

hypoxia of EPO-producing cells

On a blood smear slide prepared using Wright's stain, you observe a large cell with a U-shaped nucleus and pale blue cytoplasm. This cell is most likely a(n) __________.

monocyte

Hemorrhagic anemias result from blood loss.

true

Which of the following is NOT a major type of stimulus that triggers endocrine glands to manufacture and release hormones?

enzymatic

The majority of whole blood is __________.

plasma

Which of the following is characteristic of all leukocytes?

they are nucleated

Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?

enzyme

Positive chemotaxis is a feedback system that signals leukocyte migration into damaged areas.

true

Direct gene activation involves a second-messenger system.

false

Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ________.

steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells

Which type of leukocyte is responsible for antibody production?

lymphocytes

Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?

It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.

Bilirubin is cleared from the body by __________.

liver

Diapedesis is the process by which red blood cells move into tissue spaces from the interior of blood capillaries.

false

What triggers erythropoietin (EPO) production to make new red blood cells?

reduced availability of oxygen

What is required for the production of anterior pituitary gland hormones?

hormonal stimuli

In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as ________.

up-regulation

Which of the choices below is the parent cell for all formed elements of blood?

hemocytoblast

Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.

entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene

Which of the following hormones helps the body avoid dehydration and water overload?

antidiuretic hormone

What gland secretes growth hormone?

anterior pituitary (lobe)

Which leukocyte functions in phagocytizing bacteria?

neutrophil

In adults, red blood cell production occurs in __________.

red bone marrow

What is the primary function of hormones?

alter cell activity

When we take anti-histamines, we are countering the effects of which type of leukocyte?

basophils

Which of the following hormones mainly serves to stimulate milk production by the breasts?

prolactin

The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid.

false

The __________ is the fluid portion of the blood.

plasma

Which of the following is best suited to the clotting process that occurs when blood vessels are ruptured?

platelets

Which of the following hormones stimulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids that help the body to resist stressors?

adrenocorticotropic hormone

Which of the following is NOT a property of endocrine glands?

they have ducts

Up-regulation involves the loss of receptors and prevents the target cells from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels.

false

Growth hormone solely exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones.

false

What is hematocrit a measure of?

percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.

Which of the following is not a type of hormone interaction?

feedback

Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine.

true

All peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation that produces mRNA.

true

Which of the following is not a change typically produced by a hormonal stimulus?

stimulates production of an action potential

Major hormones circulate to virtually all tissues.

true

Which of the following is not a distribution function of blood?

transport of salts to maintain blood volume

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