Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

pitch

perceptual correlate of frequency. frequency with which the vf vibrate is "fundamental frequency" ff is generally considered a persons habitual or typical pitch

3 things which determine pitch

1. mass, 2. tension, 3. elasticity of vf.
high pitch= thin, more tense vf
lower pitch= thicker more relaxed vf

frequency perturbation

jitter. variations in vocal frequency. (often heard in dysphonic pts)

volume

perceptual correlate of intensity and loudness. more intense the sound signal the greater its perceived loudness

sound

disturbance in air particles

amplitude

from of waves that move forward and backward in a medium such as air or water.

amplitude perturbation

shimmer. cycle to cycle variation of vocal intensity.

hoarsness

combo of breathy and harsh.

harshness

rouch, "gravelly". associated with excessive muscular tension and effort. vf adducted too tightly and air is then released to abruptly

strain-strangle

effortful phonation (sound as if pt is "squeezing" voice at the glottal level. initiating and sustaining phonation are difficult. talking fatigues pts. become tense when speaking

breathiness

resulfs from the vocal folds being slightly open during phonation. air escpaes through the glottis and adds noise to the sound produced by the vf. pts often complains it feels like they are running out of air.

glottal fry

vocal fry. vocal folds vibrate very slowly. resultant sound slow but discrete burts, very low pitch. "crackly" usually occurs at end of phrase. slightly elevating pitch can help

diplophonia

'double voice" two distince pitches during phonation. vf vibrate at diff frequencies due to differing defrees of mass or tension. (unilateral polyp)

stridency

shrill, unpleasant, somewhat high pitched, "tinny"
hypertonicity or tension of the pharyngeal constrictors and elevation of the larynx. tense pts may sound strident.

tidal volume

amount of air inhaled and exhaled during a normal breathing cycle

vital capacity

the volume of air that the patient can exhale after a max inhalation

total lung capacity

total volume of air in the lunges

resonance

modification of sound by the structures through which the sound passes.

hypernasality

sounds like speaking through nose. velopharyngeal inadequate (VPI). air and sound escape through the nose, adding nasal resonance to non-nasal speech sounds. insufficient intraoral breath pressure. VPI, cleft repair, submucous clefts

insufficient intraoral breath pressure

impacts the production of fricatives, affricates and plosives. produced "weakly"

hyponasality

densality. lack of appropriate nasal resonance or nasal sounds. frequent subs b/m d/n and g/ng

k, nasalglide stimulation visual aidslarynx

biological valve at top of tracha, build air pressure needed for coughing,lifting,childbirth,

hypernasality tx

biofeedback : visual aid, ear training, increased pts mouth opening, increasing pts loudness, improve artics, change ros, decrease pitch

hyponasality tx

biofeedback: direct tone into facial ma

supraglottic

above vf

glottic

at level of vf

subglottic

below level of vf

papilloma

often seen in children, wart like growths pinkish white

symptoms of papilloma

hoarseness, breathiness and low pitch.

paradoxical vf motion (pvfm)

inappropriate closure or adduction of true vfs during inhalation, exhalation or both

symptoms of PVFM

appear asthmatic,stridor and dysphonia

gastroesohphogeal refulx disease (GERD)

gastric contents spontaneouly empty in esophagus,

symptoms of GERD

hearburn, acid indigestion, sore throat and hoarsness. contact ulcers

tx techniques to acheive firmer vf closure

elevation in pitch, increased loudness, increased breath support, pushing approach, hard glottal attacks, head turning or positionig

spasmodic dysphonia

focal laryngeal dystonia

MS voice symptoms

impaired prosody, pitch and loudness control, harshness, breathiness, hypernasality,artic breakdown, and nasal air escape

myasthenia gravis voice symptoms

fatiue and musle weakness, hypernasal, breathy, hoarse, soft in volume.

ALS voice symptoms

degeneration of UMN and LMN breathy, low pitch, monotonous and poor respiratory contorl. aac eventuall needed

parkinsons voice symptoms

breathy, low pitched, and monotonous
tx=LSVT

mutational falsetto

aka puberphonia. young man speak with a high pitch althought the laryns has grown normally and puberty is complete

tx for mutational falsetto

relaxation, yawn sigh, open mouth approach.

Ahonia tx techniques

masking, relaxation, coughing, grunting, throat clearing, humming, prolonging cough into a normal vowel, yawn-sigh,

blom-singer device

used to shunt air from tracha to esphagus so pt can speak on that air

jitter

frequency perturbarion. should be less than 1% when speaker sustains vowel

shimmer

amplitude pertubation, eval cycle to cycle variation of vocal intensity. more than 1dB variation across cycles may cauase pt to sound dysphonic.

speech spectrograph.

useful for quantitative analysis of speech, often used to obain baseline measurements before pts surgery.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set