Social Psychology 1-4

219 terms by clarames320

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Unit 1 Myers Text Book

As a result of random assignment, the people in both groups of an experiment

are more likely to be about the same in every way.

The variable being measured in an experiment, so-called because it may depend on manipulations of another variable, is called the ______ variable.

dependent

Asking students to come to a laboratory at 3 p.m. in order to participate in a study on university students' usage of cellular phones is an example of what type of research?

laboratory research

You have just participated in a research study that required you to choose which picture you preferred among several pairs. At the end of the study, the researcher explained that she was trying to identify correlations between age, gender, and racial groups when making preferences. The researcher's disclosing of the true purpose of the study is part of the ____ process.

debriefing

Myers' discussion of the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement concludes that

both self-esteem and academic achievement are likely caused by a third variable.

In the U.S., those living in Hawaii and the deep South exhibit more _______ than those living in the Mountain West states.

collectivism

You overhear a neighbor say that she believes that gay marriage should be legal, and that she opposes tax cuts for the wealthy. Knowing what you do about individualism and collectivism, you can conclude that your neighbor is likely to be a political

liberal.

Political conservatives tend to be economic _______ and moral ¬¬_______.

individualists; collectivists

Baumeister (2003) reported that people who engaged in sexual activity at an early age, teen gang leaders, terrorists, and men in prison for committing violent crimes tend to possess

high self-esteem

Education and persuasion tend to change what type of attitudes?

explicit

According to a study by Burger and Pavelich (1994), voters were more likely to attribute the outcome of an election to the _______ the day after a presidential election, and to the _______ a year after the election.

candidate's personal traits and positions; nation's economy

Which statement is NOT correct as it relates to mood and judgment?

We are not more likely to make snap judgments when we have strong mad or glad feelings

Research on gambling has found that throwing the dice or spinning the wheel increases people's confidence. This illustrates the

illusion of control

Researchers had male students speak by telephone with women they thought were either attractive or unattractive. When judges later analyzed the women's comments, they found that the

women thought to be attractive spoke more warmly than the other women.

Researchers randomly assigned participants to play the part of either a quiz game contestant or the host, while other participants merely observed the game. Results indicated that

both contestants and observers thought the hosts were more knowledgeable than the contestants

Which statement is NOT true according to the research findings on behavior and attitudes?

Our posture does not affect our performance

Which statement is NOT true according to the research findings on behavior and attitudes?

You can't sense how someone else is feeling if you mirror their facial expressions

Diener and Wallbom (1976) found that when research participants were instructed to stop working on a problem after a bell sounded, 71 percent continued working when left alone. How many continued to work after the bell if they were made self-aware by working in front of a mirror?

7 percent

Your research paper, which you don't want to write, is due in two months. The best way deal with it, according to the research, is to

start the paper and you will feel better about wanting to do it

Which statement is true?

Explicit and implicit attitudes are a good predictor of behavior.

There is an example discussed in the text about how the meat lobby rejected a new U.S. food labeling law that required declaring meat as "30 percent fat" rather than "70 percent lean, 30 percent fat." This is an example of how ____ may influence human decisions and expressed opinions.

framing of a question

Time-lagged correlations, according to the text, are an advanced correlational technique that can reveal the _______ variables or events, such as achievement and self-esteem.

sequence of

A serious shortcoming of a correlational study is that it cannot

identify which variable causes the other variable.

In order to determine whether or not changing one variable (such as education) will produce changes in another (such as income), one needs to conduct _______ research.

experimental

Giving priority to the goals of one's group, such as one's family or workplace, and defining one's identity accordingly is called

collectivism

High school students who finished near the top of their class are more likely to experience a threat to their academic self-esteem if they attend a

large, selective university.

The habit of using how we imagine another person perceiving us, as a mirror for perceiving ourselves, is referred to as

looking glass self

According to Wilson and Gilbert (2003), people have the greatest difficulty predicting _______ of their emotions.

both intensity and duration

Activating particular associations in memory is called

priming

Sharon typically watches televised news stations that support her existing political beliefs. She is less inclined to watch the news on other stations, as it may disprove her preconceptions. Sharon's approach illustrates the

confirmation bias.

You have strong feelings about abortion. Which statement is true?

Your beliefs influence how you see now information.

In a study conducted by Lassiter and his colleagues (2005), participants observed a suspect confessing during a police interview. The results indicated that participants were more likely to perceive the confession as coerced when they viewed the confession

through a camera focused on the detective.

When trying to recall the definition of the fundamental attribution error during an exam, you think back to what the professor was wearing when he was talking about the fundamental attribution error in class. What type of thinking is this?

controlled processing

Which theory best explains why 40 percent of smokers in the U.S. judge smoking as not very harmful?

cognitive dissonance

When people are bribed to do what they already like doing, they start to see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing. This is called the

overjustification effect.

Although you may spend the evening surfing the Internet rather than studying, you have generally been quite a disciplined student throughout your academic career and have always held the attitude that studying is important. The relationship between your studying behavior and your attitude toward studying can best be described by which social psychological term?

the principle of aggregation

Interested in purchasing a digital camera, you find one priced extremely low. As you are about to purchase the camera, you find that it does not come with a power cord, memory card, or battery. You purchase all of these separately. The total cost surpasses what another store had listed the camera as at a higher price, but included all the accessories. You have been a victim of the _______ technique.

low-ball

The insufficient justification effect involves reducing dissonance by _______ justifying one's behavior when _______ justification is insufficient.

internally; external

Hypothesis

A testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events

According to the text, the postal code areas of Scotland that have the least overcrowding and the least amount of unemployment also have the

Greatest longevity

Carroll, Smith, and Bennett (1994) found that the height of graveyard markers in a Glasgow cemetery was positively correlated with

Longevity

Correlational research allows us to

make predictions.

According to the text, _______ realism is not as important in social psychological research as _______ realism is.

mundane; experimental

According to the text, the postal code areas of Scotland that have the least overcrowding and the least amount of unemployment also have the

greatest longevity.

Carroll, Smith, and Bennett (1994) found that the height of graveyard markers in a Glasgow cemetery was positively correlated with

longevity

As a result of random assignment, the people in both groups of an experiment

are more likely to be about the same in every way.

People with high self-esteem and narcissism are _____

more aggressive.

The belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior than they actually are is referred to as the _____ effect.

spotlight

You overhear a neighbor say that she believes that gay marriage should be legal, and that she opposes tax cuts for the wealthy. Knowing what you do about individualism and collectivism, you can conclude that your neighbor is likely to be a political

liberal

When you give a presentation in class and feel extremely nervous you will tend to _____ what others think about your nervousness.

overestimate

Being a musician in a band, you seem to pay attention when other people are discussing music and easily remember their musical preferences. This tendency is referred to as the

self-reference effect

Researchers had students write essays opposing student control over university curricula. When asked to recall how they had felt about the same issue a week earlier, most of the students

mistakenly "remembered" having felt the same as they do now.

According to research done by Miller and his colleagues (1975), if you want young children to put trash in wastebaskets, you should repeatedly

congratulate them for being neat and tidy.

The statistical tendency for extreme scores or behaviors to return toward average is called

regression toward the average.

Thinking that our premonitions correlate with events represents

an illusory correlation.

Each semester you repeatedly underestimate how long it will take you to complete a research paper that is due at the end of the term. Your behavior is an example of the

overconfidence phenomenon.

As a teenager, your parents always forced you to clean your room. Now that you are living on your own, you feel no motivation to clean, as there are no parents around to nag you. This is an example of how

attitudes follow behaviors for which we feel some responsibility.

As mentioned in the textbook, the daily flag salute by school children in the U.S. is an attempt to use _______ to build _______.

public conformity; private beliefs

When we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them the same way someone else would who was observing us - that is, we look at our behavior. Which theory does this describe?

self-perception theory

Impression management, or making a good impression by being consistent in our behavior, is another term for

self-presentation theory.

The smallest incentive that will get people to do something is usually the most effective in getting them to like the activity and keep doing it. This is best explained by the

overjustification effect

Your psychology professor tells you that she is collecting data on the amount that students study and their grades (i.e., she is asking each student to report how many hours he/she studies each week, so that she can determine if there is a relationship between hours spent studying and grades). Which type of research is this?

correlational research

Research conducted on prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviors revealed that college students who expressed higher than average feelings of prejudice toward Arab Americans were

more willing than those low in prejudice to convey bad news to Arabs.

Which of the following theories explains the insufficient justification effect by claiming that we explain our behavior by noting the conditions under which it occurs?

self-perception

Which theory predicts that when people experience a self-image threat, they will compensate by affirming another aspect of the self?

self-affirmation theory

According to the overjustification effect, reinforcements that praise people tend to _______ intrinsic motivation, and reinforcement that seeks to control people _______ intrinsic motivation.

increase; decreases

Which theory explains our conclusion that we must be anxious because we woke up before dawn?

self-perception theory

According to research done by Miller and his colleagues (1975), if you want young children to put trash in wastebaskets, you should repeatedly

congratulate them for being neat and tidy.

Burger and Pavelich (1994) found that voters were more likely to attribute the outcome of an election to the candidate's personal traits and positions the day after a presidential election, and to the nation's economy a year after the election. This represents which of the following explanations for the fundamental attribution error?

changing perspectives trend

Once during a hospital stay, you observed a man and a woman (both in health professional attire) talking. You assumed that the man was a physician and that the woman was a nurse. Later, you found out the opposite was true. What type of heuristic did you use during your initial reaction to the two individuals?

representativeness heuristic

The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences on other people's behavior is called the

fundamental attribution error.

According to the text, observers tend to attribute a person's behavior to _______ the more that time passes.

the situation

According to Marsh and Young (1997), students are motivated to work harder and achieve more after experiencing academic ¬¬¬_______, which helps them develop _______ appraisals of their academic ability.

success; higher

In the U.S., those living in Hawaii and the deep South exhibit more _______ than those living in the Mountain West states.

collectivism

You overhear a neighbor say that she believes that gay marriage should be illegal and that she favors tax cuts for the wealthy. Knowing what you do about individualism and collectivism, you can conclude that your neighbor is likely to be a political

conservative.

John is nervous about his tennis match, but he still stays out late instead of getting a good night's sleep the night before the match. This could be an example of

self-handicapping.

You just broke up with someone you had been dating for a few months. You are surprised at how upset you are over the breakup, given that the relationship was not that serious. This is an example of how people have difficulty predicting the

intensity of their future emotions.

If you ask conservative, liberal, independent, and green party voters their opinions of political candidates, rather than just conservative voters, you are attempting to ensure that your sample is

representative.

An experimenter exposed participants to different room temperatures to determine their effects on aggression. The room temperatures were the

independent variable

Whether we label a woman as "ambitious" or "aggressive" is a reflection of our

values

The major purpose of random assignment in an experiment is to

minimize the differences between groups

In Snyder and Haugen's research on obesity and social status (1994; 1995), male students were shown a picture of a normal or obese woman before having a conversation with a female student. In this study, the independent variable was the

normal or overweight woman's picture.

The experimental factor that a researcher manipulates in a study is called the ______ variable.

independent

You are participating in a psychology research experiment and the researcher invites you to return after the experiment to learn more about it and to explore your feelings about it. This is called

debriefing

The best way to improve your performance in class is to be _____ in the praise and _____ about your ability and performance.

specific; truthful

When it comes to predicting the intensity and duration of our future emotions, research indicates that most people

experience great difficulty

Which of the following is NOT one of the ways that the self-serving bias is adaptive?

It makes us feel less vulnerable to risks such as AIDS.

The planning fallacy is the tendency to

underestimate how long a task will take.

A sense that one is competent and effective refers to one's

self-efficacy

Incorporating inaccurate information into one's memory of an event, after witnessing the event and receiving misleading information about it is called

the misinformation effect

"Explicit" thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious is called

controlled processing.

You have strong feelings about abortion. Which statement is true?

Your beliefs influence how you see now information.

The statistical tendency for extreme scores or behaviors to return toward average is called

regression toward the average.

Myra's neighbor, a little boy, practices his saxophone loudly and annoyingly. According to the overjustification effect, if Myra wants to get him to quit playing, she should

pay him to play and then offer him less and less.

The attitudes-follow-behavior effect is strongest when

people feel that they have some choice in their behavior.

When people are bribed to do what they already like doing, they start to see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing. This is called the

over-justification effect

The best way to cultivate Mark's enjoyment of a task that is not intrinsically appealing to him is to have him comply with the behavior and then suggest that

he did the task for an intrinsic reason.

The research indicates that if you wish to love someone more, you should

act as if you do

Once we make a decision or choice, and feel some cognitive dissonance,

we form additional reasons for that decision or choice.

Dissonance conditions do indeed arouse tension, especially when those conditions threaten

self-worth

In the ABCs of attitudes, "A" stands for

Affect

"Implicit" thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness is called

automatic processing

You are consistently late to your psychology class, because the biology class you have immediately before it is in a building on the other side of campus. You are concerned that your professor does not think you are a serious student because of your chronic tardiness, so you inform her of why you are always late. You can now safely conclude that your professor will make what type of attribution about your behavior?

Situational

Your immediate recognition of your friend's face or her voice on the phone is an example of

automatic processing

The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate depositional influences on other people's behavior is called the

fundamental attribution error.

People with low self-esteem are _____ to have clinical problems, including anxiety, loneliness, and eating disorders.

more likely

Being a musician in a band, you seem to pay attention when other people are discussing music and easily remember their musical preferences. This tendency is referred to as the

self-reference effect.

According to Woodzicka and LaFrance (2001), women reported that they would feel angry if asked sexually harassing questions during a job interview. When actually asked such questions, women more often experienced

fear

Practice that forms new habits, albeit slowly, tends to change what type of attitudes?

implicit

Regarding social-psychological research, Myers warns that we must be cautious about

generalizing from the laboratory to life.

According to the text, values enter the work of social psychology when researchers

choose the topics of their studies.

When explaining topics such as dating and mating, evolutionary psychologists consider how natural selection might

predispose our attitudes.

Random sampling helps researchers _______, while random assignment helps researchers _______.

generalize to a population; infer cause and effect

Putting participants in one of two conditions by flipping a coin illustrates

random assignment.

The analogy used in the text to describe what happens when old theories are discarded employs a discussion of how

old cars are replaced by newer and better models.

Regarding social-psychological research, Myers warns that we must be cautious about

generalizing from the laboratory to life.

Socially shared beliefs are widely held ideas and values, which include our assumptions and cultural ideologies. This is a definition of

social representations.

The difference between facts and theories is that

theories explain facts.

You notice that your niece is unusually persistent when working on her homework. She rarely claims that she is unable to complete an assignment and is academically successful. You would be correct in speculating that she likely has _______ feelings of self-efficacy.

strong

The truth concerning self-efficacy encourages us not to resign ourselves to bad situations. If we persist despite initial failures

effort and fewer self-doubts will help us succeed.

A person from a(n) _____ culture is more likely to say, "Went to the movies," and a person from a(n) _____ culture is more likely to say, "I went to the movies."

collectivistic; individualistic

Saying "I earned an A on my psychology test" versus "My instructor gave me a C on my psychology test" exemplifies how we associate ourselves with

success and distance ourselves from failure.

Which statement is NOT correct as it relates to mood and judgment?

We are not more likely to make snap judgments when we have strong mad or glad feelings.

Those who make situational attributions regarding poverty and unemployment tend to adopt political positions that

offer more direct support to the poor.

Researchers provided study participants with evidence that either risk-prone or cautious people make better firefighters. When participants wrote an explanation for the findings, they were particularly susceptible to

belief perseverance.

Research has shown that explaining why an opposite theory may be true (e.g., why a cautious person might be a better firefighter than a risk-taking person) _______ belief perseverance.

reduces

Ridge and Reber (2002) conducted a study in which men were told that job candidates were attracted to them. The findings revealed that the

women exhibited more flirtatiousness.

The fact that 76 percent of Californians agreed to install a huge ugly sign in their front yard after first being approached with a small request two weeks earlier exemplifies the _______ phenomenon.

foot-in-the-door

As noted in the textbook, at the beginning of the Iraq war only 38 percent of Americans said the war was justified even if Iraq did not have weapons of mass destruction. When no such weapons were found after the war, 58 percent of Americans then supported the war. Myers explains this revision of people's memories of the government's rationale for going to war as an example of

cognitive dissonance.

When we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them the same way someone else would who was observing us - that is, we look at our behavior. Which theory does this describe?

self-perception theory

The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later to a larger request is called the _______ phenomenon.

foot-in-the-door

Interested in purchasing a digital camera, you find one priced extremely low. As you are about to purchase the camera, you find that it does not come with a power cord, memory card, or battery. You purchase all of these separately. The total cost surpasses what another store had listed the camera as at a higher price, but included all the accessories. You have been a victim of the _______ technique.

low-ball

You are interested in finding out the effect that crowding has on people's moods. You conduct a study in a psychology research lab using two types of participants - participants who have to wait in a crowded waiting room before completing a measure of their mood, and participants who wait in an empty room before completing the same measure. Which type of research did you conduct?

both experimental and laboratory research

Many people don't quit smoking despite all the negative health information available. This is an example of

unrealistic optimism

Which of the following is a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgments?

a heuristic

Thinking that our premonitions correlate with events represents

an illusory correlation.

Your summer vacation was perhaps not an overwhelmingly positive event, but during the final week of August, you remember it as being a fantastic time. This is an example of

reconstructing our past attitudes.

According to a study by Myers (2004), people in psychotherapy and self-improvement programs who showed only modest improvements claimed that they

experienced considerable change.

Which theory assumes that when our attitudes regarding something are weak to begin with, we will use our behavior and its circumstances as a clue to those attitudes?

self-perception theory

The Implicit Association Test (IAT)

measures both conscious and unconscious attitudes.

Research indicates that survey results often depend on the

wording and order of the questions.

_____ helps researchers generalize to a population.

Random sampling

A theory

summarizes and explains facts.

An important factor in survey research is how closely the sample reflects the population under study. This is referred to as sample

representativeness.

According to the results of the Kahan and Johnson (1992) study mentioned in the text, two days after a conversation with someone our recall is best for what

the other person said about us

Which statement about predicting your own behaviors or relationships is TRUE?

The people who know you can probably predict your behaviors better than you.

According to the text, self-esteem typically _____ in Japanese exchange students after they spend several months at a Canadian university. This suggests that self-concepts become more individualized after visiting Western countries.

increase

According to your text, people everywhere perceive referees and the media as

biased against their position.

Which statement is NOT true according to the research findings on behavior and attitudes?

You can't sense how someone else is feeling if you mirror their facial expressions.

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set