1. Psychologists use the term _________ to refer to a relatively permanent change in behavior resulting from experience.
2. _________ is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that
would elicit the same response naturally.
a. Classical conditioning
3. Any stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without previous learning is a(n)
c. unconditioned stimulus.
4. In Pavlov's study, the UCS was _______; the neutral stimulus was _________; and, finally, the CS was _________.
b. food; the bell; the bell
5. Which of the following responses is probably learned through classical conditioning?
b. feeling anxious before a test
6. ___________ occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency when the CS is presented in the absence of
7. Joanne extinguished her fear of spiders several months ago, but she suddenly gasped in horror and felt her heart pounding when she saw a spider on the floor in front of her. This is an example of
a. spontaneous recovery.
8. Which of the following terms best expresses the relationship between stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination?
b. They are opposites.
9. Often, a conditioned response may be elicited not only by the original CS, but by a similar one as well. This is known as
10. Which of the following is an example of stimulus discrimination?
c. William was in an accident with a red car last month. Now he gets nervous when he sees a red car, but not when he sees a red truck or van.
11. Operant conditioning most importantly involves forming associations between
c. behavior and consequences.
12. Classical conditioning applies mostly to ________, while operant conditioning mostly applies to __________.
a. involuntary behavior; voluntary behavior
13. The process by which a stimulus increases the likelihood that a preceding behavior will be repeated is called
14. Negative reinforcement
b. leads to an increase in the probability of a behavior.
15. Which of the following scenarios exemplifies negative reinforcement?
a. Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the annoying alert sound.
16. Positive punishment is
c. exemplified by a spanking.
17. Which of the following scenarios exemplify negative punishment?
a. Astrid sends her daughter to her room alone when she misbehaves.
18. Vending machine is to slot machine as ____________ reinforcement is to __________ reinforcement.
19. As compared to behaviors reinforced on continuous schedules, behaviors reinforced intermittently are _______ resistant to
20. Mr. Johnson wants his son to take out the trash, without having to tell him to do it. The best way to do this would be to
reward his son on a __________ schedule of reinforcement at first then change to a __________ schedule.
b. continuous; partial
21. Dr. Arceneaux has developed several alternative plans to increase the number of online practice quizzes his students
complete. Which plan below is INCORRECTLY matched with the related reinforcement schedule?
c. one bonus point awarded every now and then (about 2 weeks on average) if two or more quizzes have been completed recently—variable-ratio
22. The process of teaching complex behavior by reinforcing ever closer approximations of the desired behavior is called
23. Mrs. Martin, a third-grade teacher, is teaching her students cursive writing. At first, she reinforces even crude attempts to
reproduce letters with encouraging words. However, as time goes on, she reinforces only well-formed letters. By reinforcing
progressively better attempts at writing letters, Mrs. Martin is using
24. Which of the following reflects successful applications of behavior modification?
d. All of these
a. It has helped people lose weight.
b. It has helped people quit smoking.
c. It has helped severely mentally retarded people begin to take care of themselves.
25. The focus of classical conditioning is on __________; the focus of the cognitive learning approach is on _________.
a. external stimuli and consequences; internal processes
26. Studies on latent learning involving maze learning in rats found that rats acquired a mental representation of the spatial layout of the maze called a(n)
B. cognitive map
27. Learning that occurs internally and is expressed behaviorally only when there is sufficient motivation to do so is called
28. Why might the latent learning results pose a problem for strict, Skinnerian views of learning?
c. Both A and B
a. The results suggest that direct reinforcement is not necessary for learning to occur.
b. The results suggest that internal processes may be necessary to fully explain learning.
29. Bandura's "Bobo doll" experiments were intended to demonstrate
b. observational learning.
30. Kayla is helping her professor conduct an observational learning study in which the model is either similar or dissimilar to
the participant. In this study, the similarity of the model to the participant is a(n) _________ variable.
31. Dr. Landry is conducting an observational learning study in which the model is either similar or dissimilar to the
participant. Dr. Landry thinks that participants are more likely to imitate the behavior of similar than of dissimilar models. This is a(n)
32. In Bandura's observational learning work, which of the following is most likely a dependent variable?
c. whether children mimic the model's aggressive behavior
33. Which of the following statements INCORRECTLY describes the effects on observational learning of the reinforcement or
punishment of the model?
b. Observational learning does not occur when the model is punished.
34. By which of the following mechanisms might exposure to media violence contribute to an increase in real-life aggressive
d. All of these
a. It may lower inhibitions against performing aggressive acts.
b. It may predispose one to view others' behavior as aggressive, even when it is not.
c. It may desensitize one to violence.
35. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order in which memory processes occur from first to last?
a. encoding -> storage -> retrieval
36. When we use the term "remembering" in day-to-day life, we are making reference to the memory process of
37. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of stages in the three-system model of memory?
a. sensory memory -> short-term memory -> long-term memory
38. Sensory memory has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
c. the capacity is about seven plus or minus two chunks.
39. Which of the following expressions best reflects the capacity of short-term memory?
c. about seven plus or minus two chunks
40. __________ is the process of grouping separate pieces of information into a single unit in order to store more information in
a. Chunking; short-term memory
41. We look up a number in the phone book, push the book away, and then begin to dial the number. Why do we discourage an interruption during this process?
a. Information lasts only 15-25 seconds in short-term memory.
42. Robert just met a woman he feels attracted to and keeps saying her name over and over to himself to make sure he doesn't forget it. He is using __________ to keep this woman's name in __________ memory
c. maintenance rehearsal; short-term
43. What is the goal of elaborative rehearsal?
c. Both A and B
a. to consider information
b. to organize information
44. Which of the following represents elaborative rehearsal strategies?
d. Both B and C
b. creating visual images based on the information to be remembered
c. making connections between the new information and information already in long-term memory
45. Our ability to recall an item from a list depends on where in the list the item occurs. This is the __________ effect.
a. serial position
46. Which of the following statements accurately captures the relationship among the modules of long-term memory?
b. Episodic and semantic memory are both components of declarative memory.
47. Knowing how to shoot a basketball is an example of a(n) __________ memory.
48. Cole knows that the capital of Vermont is Montpelier. This is an example of a(n) __________ memory.
49. The hippocampus plays a role in memory consolidation. Think back to the three memory processes described at the beginning of the chapter. It is probably most accurate to say that the hippocampus is more involved in __________ than in __________.
c. encoding and storage; retrieval
50. Estelle remembers a night she was mugged and brutally beaten. This memory probably involves not only her hippocampus
but also her
51. Why is it so difficult to retrieve information from long-term memory?
d. Both B and C
b. There is probably no single site or process in the brain corresponding to a particular memory.
c. Any given memory probably involves many simultaneous brain processes and locations.
52. A stimulus that facilitates the recall of information from long-term memory is called a __________.
a. retrieval cue
53. Levels-of-processing theory suggests that shallow processing is to deep processing as __________ is to __________.
c. Both A and B
a. physical characteristics; semantic content
b. maintenance rehearsal; elaborative rehearsal
54. Memories of which we're not consciously aware are called __________ memories.
55. Implicit memory is involved in
d. All of these
a. skills that operate automatically.
b. our first impressions of others.
c. prejudice and discrimination.
56. Studies investigating priming effects exemplify which form of memory?
57. Melinda is computing the correlation coefficient between scores on measure of eyewitness confidence and scores on a measure of eyewitness accuracy. What sort of coefficient do you think she'll find?
b. a weak one
58. Loftus and Palmer (1974) conducted an experiment in which participants estimated the speed of car described as either contacting or smashing into each other. To which of the following conclusions regarding eyewitness memory is this study most relevant?
c. Eyewitness memory can be influenced by specific wording of questions.
59. Our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own lives are referred to as
b. autobiographical memories.
60. In the song "The Way We Were," Barbra Streisand asks if "time [has] rewritten every line." Has it? What does research on
autobiographical memory have to say?
d. Both A and C
a. Yes, it probably has. Our memories tend to be consistent with our current view of ourselves.
c. Yes, most likely it has. We tend to have much clearer memories of some periods of our lives than we have of other times.
61. The first attempts to study forgetting scientifically were made by the German psychologist
62. Which of the following statements BEST describes the forgetting function that Ebbinghaus discovered?
d. Material is forgotten relatively rapidly at first, then the rate of forgetting slows down.
63. According to your text, one of Ebbinghaus's key __________ variables was __________.
b. dependent; ease of relearning
64. Which theory of forgetting is CORRECTLY matched with its description?
a. decay—Information is lost over time as a result of nonuse.
65. Your text suggests that to better remember course material you might make use of organizational aids; you might also take fewer notes but think more carefully about those you do take. These suggestions make sense in light of
d. Both A and B
a. levels-of-processing theory.
b. the benefits of elaborative rehearsal.
66. Your textbook lists several techniques for improving memory. Which of the following is NOT included?
b. use interference
67. Which of the following scientists would be considered a cognitive psychologist?
C. Both Dr. Abdalla and Dr. Braithwaite
68. Categories of objects, events, or people that share common features are called
69. Which of the following is most likely the prototype of the concept "fruit"?
70. Frank lost a contact lens in the kitchen; he is searching for it by examining each floor tile in turn to see if the lens is
contained within the square. Gemma also lost a lens in the kitchen; she is looking for it near the base of the fridge and around
the stove, the two appliances she remembers using when she was last in the kitchen. Which of these individuals is using an
C. Both Frank and Gemma are using an algorithm.
71. If algorithms guarantee problem solutions, why do we ever use71. If algorithms guarantee problem solutions, why do we ever use heuristics, which do not? heuristics, which do not?
B. Heuristics often require less time and effort to apply than do algorithms.
72. Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, many Americans elected to drive rather than fly: The media coverage of the hijackings caused Americans to overestimate the danger of flying. This example illustrates the
A. availability heuristic.
73. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of the three broad phases of the problem solving process, from first to last?
C. preparation -> production -> judgment
74. A political science professor attempts to facilitate her students' completion of a term paper assignment by requiring
students to first submit a topic statement, then a list of references, then a draft of the introduction, then, finally, the completed
paper. The professor is encouraging her students to use the problem solving strategy of
C. means-ends analysis.
75. Which of the following impediments to effective problem solving is CORRECTLY matched with its definition?
C. confirmation bias—the tendency to favor existing hypotheses and to ignore evidence favoring alternatives
76. Nigel often cites newspaper editorials favoring the presidential candidate he supports; he appears to ignore editorials
critical of the candidate. Nigel appears prone to
C. the confirmation bias
77. Your text defines creativity as "the ability to generate original ideas or solve problems in novel ways"; it defines divergent
thinking as "the ability to generate unusual, yet appropriate, responses to problems." Based on these definitions, what type of
correlation coefficient might you get between scores on a measure of creativity and those on a measure of divergent thinking?
A. a strong positive one
78. Which of the following sequences correctly orders the components of language, from the smallest or most specific to the
79. Which component of language below is INCORRECTLY matched to its description?
D. None of these is correctly matched
80. Semantics is to meaning as ________ is to ________.
81. In written language, letters most closely represent __________, whereas sentences may be said to reflect __________.
c. phonemes; syntax
82. Tina is 6 months old; Vincenzo is 2 years old; and Wayne is 3.5 years old. Which alternative below CORRECTLY pairs each
child with the appropriate language acquisition stage or phenomenon?
B. Tina—babbling; Vincenzo—telegraphic speech; Wayne—overgeneralization
83. Which of the following is true about an infant's language production?
84. How does the language of the average 5-year-old differ from that of the typical adult?
85. The learning theory approach argues that language acquisition is driven by
86. According to the nativist approach, the key mechanisms driving language acquisition include
D. Both B and C
B. a universal grammar.
C. the language-acquisition device.
87. Theorists taking an interactionist approach to language acquisition:
88. Psychologists define _________ as the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively.
89. In what way do current theories of intelligence differ from those offered earlier in psychology's history?
90. Etta is taking an intelligence test based on Gardner's multiple intelligences theory. How is Etta's performance likely to be
91. Which of the following explanations does Sternberg offer for the weak relationship between academic success and career
92. The first legitimate intelligence tests were developed by
93. Imagine that, overall, 6-year-olds can complete a particular block design puzzle in 5 minutes. It takes 6-year-old Bailey
almost 8 minutes to complete the task. In Binet's terms, Bailey's ________ age is ________ than 6; his IQ is thus ________ than 100.
94. If one wishes to predict an individual's ability or success in a given area, one would use a(n) __________ test. If one wishes to
measure an individual's level of knowledge, one would use a(n) _____________.
A. aptitude; achievement test
95. A psychological test is valid to the extent that it
C. yields consistent measurements.
96. Why is it sometimes difficult to decide if an individual is mentally retarded?
97. Regarding the causes of mental retardation, which of the following statements is most nearly true?
98. As compared to more typical individuals, the intellectually gifted are characterized by all the following characteristics