1. Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?
A. It assists in the synthesis of vasodilators.
4. Which two ligaments extend from the thyroid cartilage to the arytenoids cartilages?
A. vestibular and vocal ligaments
5. One benefit from air passing by the turbinates is
A. the lower respiratory system remains humidified.
7. Each alveoulus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by
A. the pulmonary artery.
11. This structure is about 5cm long and slightly narrower and more horizontal than the one on the opposite side.
13. Compared to any other point on this figure, the highest ventilation-perfusion ratio would be found at point
16. Crude sounds are formed into intelligible speech by all of the following except
A. the epiglottis.
18. The Valsalva maneuver can assist in diagnosing a hernia by
A. decreasing intraabdominal pressure.
19. ___ states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of its individual gases.
A. Dalton's law
In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?
A. bronchiole diameter
The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is called
A. inspiratory reserve volume.
22. Vital capacity consists of
A. expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume.
23. Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?
A. Kussmaul respiration
26. Tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock. Why does a Good Samaritan have up to 4 to 5 minutes to begin CPR and save Tom's life?
A. a venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood
27. During exercise, which of the following directly increases respiratory rate?
A. anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle
28. Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
A. an increase in membrane thickness
29. The addition of CO2 to the blood generates ___ ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygen.
33. Normally the systemic arterial blood has Po2 of ___ mm Hg, and Pco2 of ___ mm Hg, and pH of ____.
A. 95; 40; 7.4
34. Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?
A. carbonic anhydrase
35. In one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what percentage of its oxygen?
A. 20% to 25%
36. Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
38. ___ is a lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of the remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy and hypersecretion, and thick sputum.
A. Chronic bronchitis
41. In ___, the lungs are infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis.
44. Which of these is most likely to result from contact between contaminated fingers and the nasal mucosa?
A. acute rhinitis
45. Scuba divers breathe a nitrogen-oxygen mixture rather than pure compressed oxygen in order to avoid
A. oxygen toxicity.
46. Nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing a syndrome called
A. cerebral embolism
47. The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in
A. the medulla oblongata
48. Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by __ of the respiratory tract.
A. goblet cells
51. Blood banks dispose of blood that has low levels of bisphosphoglycerate. What would be the probable reason for doing so?
A. Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload O2 very well.
52. Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is ___ mL/min.