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1. Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?

A. It assists in the synthesis of vasodilators.

2. The upper respiratory tract extends

A. from the nose through the larynx.

3. The nose is divided into right and left halves termed the

A. nasal fossae.

4. Which two ligaments extend from the thyroid cartilage to the arytenoids cartilages?

A. vestibular and vocal ligaments

5. One benefit from air passing by the turbinates is

A. the lower respiratory system remains humidified.

6. The most numerous cells in the lungs are called

A. dust cells

7. Each alveoulus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by

A. the pulmonary artery.

8. Which of the following does not have cilia?

A. respiratory bronchioles

9. What is the basic distinction between an alveolar duct and an alveolar atrium?

A. their shape

10. Which is more prominent in males than in females?

1

11. This structure is about 5cm long and slightly narrower and more horizontal than the one on the opposite side.

4

12. Although the heart is not included in this illustration, its apex would lie at point

7

13. Compared to any other point on this figure, the highest ventilation-perfusion ratio would be found at point

3

14. Structure 2 is the

A. cricoid cartilage.

15. There is a total of five of these structures in the respiratory system.

A. 6 and 8

16. Crude sounds are formed into intelligible speech by all of the following except

A. the epiglottis.

17. Which of the following cartilages is largest?

A. the thyroid cartilage

18. The Valsalva maneuver can assist in diagnosing a hernia by

A. decreasing intraabdominal pressure.

19. ___ states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of its individual gases.

A. Dalton's law

In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?

A. bronchiole diameter

The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is called

A. inspiratory reserve volume.

22. Vital capacity consists of

A. expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume.

23. Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?

A. Kussmaul respiration

24. A gangrenous diabetic ulcer can be treated with which of the following?

A. hyperbaric oxygen

25. Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means except

A. carbonate.

26. Tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock. Why does a Good Samaritan have up to 4 to 5 minutes to begin CPR and save Tom's life?

A. a venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood

27. During exercise, which of the following directly increases respiratory rate?

A. anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle

28. Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?

A. an increase in membrane thickness

29. The addition of CO2 to the blood generates ___ ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygen.

A. hydrogen

30. Which of the following has no effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation?

A. erythrocyte count

31. Which has the highest concentration in the air we breathe?

A. nitrogen

32. Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to _____ oxygen molecules.

A. 4

33. Normally the systemic arterial blood has Po2 of ___ mm Hg, and Pco2 of ___ mm Hg, and pH of ____.

A. 95; 40; 7.4

34. Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?

A. carbonic anhydrase

35. In one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what percentage of its oxygen?

A. 20% to 25%

36. Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?

A. hypoxia

37. Congestive heart failure results in which of the following?

A. ischemic hypoxia

38. ___ is a lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of the remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy and hypersecretion, and thick sputum.

A. Chronic bronchitis

39. Which of the following would lead to anemic hypoxia?

A. sickle-cell disease

40. A lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli is

A. emphysema.

41. In ___, the lungs are infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis.

A. tuberculosis

42. Which malignancy originates in the lamina propria of the bronchi?

A. adenocarcinoma

43. Polio can sometimes damage the brainstem respiratory centers and result in

A. Ondine's curse.

44. Which of these is most likely to result from contact between contaminated fingers and the nasal mucosa?

A. acute rhinitis

45. Scuba divers breathe a nitrogen-oxygen mixture rather than pure compressed oxygen in order to avoid

A. oxygen toxicity.

46. Nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing a syndrome called

A. cerebral embolism

47. The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in

A. the medulla oblongata

48. Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by __ of the respiratory tract.

A. goblet cells

49. The blood transports more CO2 in the form of __ than in any other form.

A. bicarbonate ions

50. Among its other purposes, the Valsalva maneuver is used

A. to aid in defecation and urination.

51. Blood banks dispose of blood that has low levels of bisphosphoglycerate. What would be the probable reason for doing so?

A. Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload O2 very well.

52. Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is ___ mL/min.

A. 4,2000

53. Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500 mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000 mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1,200 mL. Your vital capacity is ____ mL.

A. 4,7000

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