__________ is an individual's perception of his or her rightful place in the reward structure of society.
__________ theories suggest that crime is the end product of factors such as inappropriate socialization and social learning.
__________ theories suggest that crime is the result of class struggle.
__________ was based on the work of Cloward and Ohlin
Mobilization for Youth
__________'s study of gangs in Chicago is one of the earliest works on subcultures.
Frederic M. Thrasher
According to Cloward and Ohlin, a Type __________ youth wants wealth but not entry into the middle class.
According to differential opportunity theory, drug use predominates in the __________ delinquent subculture.
According to general strain theory, which of the following is not a strain likely to cause crime?
The strain is associated with high levels of self-control.
According to James Clark, the black subculture of violence was created by generations of __________ violence.
According to Merton, an innovator
accepts the legitimate goals but rejects the socially approved means of acquiring those goals.
According to Merton, the __________ mode of adaptation involves rejecting culturally defined goals but accepting socially approved means.
According to Merton, which of the following is the mode of adaptation that typifies most middle- and upper-class individuals?
According to Merton, which of the following would not be a socially approved means to achieving legitimate goals?
According to Miller, male involvement in fighting and sexual adventures while drinking represent which focal concern?
According to Park and Burgess, Zone __________ contained mostly working-class tenements.
According to the research on crime patterns in concentric zones, as the composition of the population in the zone of transition changes (e.g., because of various waves of immigration), the crime rate will
stay about the same
According to Thomas and Znaniecki, increased crime rates among recent immigrants to America was due to social
The average age for joining a gang today is approximately __________ years of age
The book Street Corner Society, which studied the Italian slum known as "Cornerville," was written by
William F. Whyte
The book The Code of the Street was written by
The broken windows perspective was developed by
James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling
The classic statement of strain theory was developed by
Robert K. Merton
The concentric zone model was applied to the study of juvenile delinquency by
Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay
The concentric zone research conducted by Park and Burgess identified Zone __________ as being in transition.
The concept of "wholesale" and "retail" costs for homicide was developed by
The concept of a subculture of violence was developed by
Franco Ferracuti and Marvin Wolfgang.
The concept of luck or of being lucky relates to the focal concern
Conflict theories see __________ as a fundamental cause of crime.
the nature of existing power relationships between social groups
The culture conflict perspective was most clearly expressed by
The development of favorable attitudes towards the use of violence involves
Differential opportunity theory was developed by
Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin
Early ecological theories of crime were collectively referred to as the __________ School of Criminology.
General strain theory was developed by
The idea of viewing cities in terms of concentric zones was developed by
Robert Parks and Earnest Burgess
It appears that certain forms of violence are more acceptable in the __________ portion of the United States
A juvenile who becomes addicted to drugs or alcohol is an example of Cloward and Ohlin's Type __________ youth.
Merton's strain theory stresses
the idea that American society emphasizes common success goals without providing equal access to the means of obtaining them.
The most important contribution made by the ecological school is
its claim that the community has a significant influence on behavior.
Neutralization theory is most closely associated with the work of
Gresham Sykes and David Matza.
Operation Padlock in New York City was based on the concept of
criminology of place
Reaction formation was developed by
Relative deprivation theory was proposed by
Steven F. Messner and Richard Rosenfeld.
Sherman's "hot spots" research found that __________ percent of places in Minneapolis generated __________ percent of all calls to the police.
A shoplifter who claims she is not really a criminal because "no one really got hurt" and "the shop can afford it" is employing the __________ technique of neutralization
Social __________ refers to institutional arrangements within society's institutions.
The social pathology model was used by early social __________ theorists.
Social structure theories see __________ as a fundamental cause of crime.
Some researchers suggest that __________ theories fail to distinguish between the condition of social disorganization and the crimes that this condition is said to cause.
The technique of neutralization that involves a young offender claiming that the unlawful acts were "not my fault" is known as
Walter Miller identified six key values or __________ which are considered important by members of a delinquent subculture.
Which focal concern involves the ability to con or outsmart others?
Which is the least common mode of adaptation, according to Merton?
Which of the following is a critique of ecological theories?
They sometimes uses the incidence of delinquency as both an example of social disorganization and something caused by disorganization.
Which of the following is characteristic of an individual experiencing personal deprivation?
feelings of social isolation
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a disorganized urban transitional zone?
The presence of a significant amount of retail businesses
Which of the following is not a type of social structure theory?
Social control theory
Which of the following is not one of Miller's focal concerns?
Which of the following is not one of the approaches upon which environmental criminology builds?
Which of the following is not one of the assumptions on which most sociological perspectives of crime causation are built?
It is possible to predict the specific behavior of an individual member of a given group.
Which of the following statement about gangs is not true?
Many gangs allow female members to assume leadership roles.
Which of the following statements would not apply to Stark's theory of deviant neighborhoods?
Where homes are more crowded, people tend to congregate in the home rather than outside the home.
Which of the following was not a result of the broken windows thesis?
a focus on serious crime
Which of the following was not one of the objectives of the Chicago Area Project?
increase job and educational opportunities for delinquents
Which of the following was not part of Mobilization for Youth?