Anarchism (or libertarianism)
Anarchism is a political philosophy which considers the state undesirable, unnecessary and harmful, and instead promotes a stateless society, or anarchy. Anarchism in Spain during the Spanish Civil War was more of a form of Libertarianism which advocates maximum personal freedom and small government. The Anarchists were a large and very powerful group in Spain during the Spanish Civil War, and were on the Republican side. They discouraged a regular Republican army in favor of small militias because it would infringe on personal freedom. This aversion to having a regular army was a problem for the Republicans because they needed to have a real army to be able to win decisive victories, and push into Nationalist territory.
Juntas de Defensa
The National Defense Council was the body created July 24 of 1936 by the military rebels in the failed coup that led to the Spanish Civil War and took over a collective term and 'all branches of government " in the territory controlled by the coup. The nationalist forces needed a leader after General Sanjuro died in a plane crash while he was on his way to Spain to lead the revolution. It stayed in power until General Franco was elected in September of 1936. Franco was given leadership because he was in control of the always important army, and in particular, the Army of Africa which was the most trained army in Spain.
July 1921, Morocco defeat
The defeat of the Spanish Army at Annual in July of 1921 in Morocco was a terrible failure of the Army of Africa. The Spanish Army was laying siege to the city of Annual in Morocco when the Riffi forces counterattacked and killed over 20,000 Spanish troops and captured guns and cannons and supplies with only 3,000 men. It was a terrible defeat of the Army of Africa and the blame was placed on the king, Alfonso XIII.
Miguel Primo de Rivera
A Spanish dictator who was named Prime Minister in 1923 and ruled until 1930. Miguel Primo de Rivera took over in a coup, and was proclaimed the new prime minister by King Alfonso in an attempt to lend some legitimacy to the dictatorship. Little social reform took place but he tried to reduce unemployment by spending money on public works. To pay for this Primo de Rivera introduced higher taxes on the rich. When they complained he changed his policies and attempted to raise money by public loans. This caused rapid inflation and after losing support of the army was forced to resign in January 1930.
Captains Galan and Garcia Hernandez
Captains in the Spanish army, they tried to revolt against the dictatorship of Damaso Berenguer on December 12 1930. There had been a widespread revolt planned for this time, but it had been postponed by the leaders, who had forgotten to inform Captains Galan and Garcia Hernandez. The revolt failed miserably because it only consisted of two captains, and they were executed and turned into martyrs for the republican cause.
On April 14, 1931 the Spanish monarchy was declared overthrown and a provisional government took power. The provisional government tried to govern, but could not appease both the extreme right and extreme left and ended up with a civil war. April 14 1931 was important because it signaled the end of the Monarchy in Spain. Zamora's government took over for the dictator who was kicked out.
Leader of the UGT and a leftist trade unionist. Cabarello joined the coalition government formed by Zamora. Cabarello was attacked by extreme leftists for not being radical enough. A few months into the Spanish Civil War he was named Prime Minister of the Republic. As the Prime Minister he tried to enforce the governments power in the Republican zone while continuing the Spanish Civil War. The POUM, a Marxist group revolted against him in 1937 along with a revolt of the CNT caused his government to fail, and forced Cabarello to resign in May of 1937.
Niceto Alacala Zamora
Formerly a monarchist who decided to support a Republic after the failure of the dictatorship in Spain. Republican lawyer who participated in the 1930 revolt against King Alfonso XIII and became the president of the new Spanish Republic. After the revolution of 1931 Zamora was declared president without an election and headed up the provisional government. He was thrown out of power in favor of Manuel Azana in 1936.
Became president of the Spanish Republic in 1936 after Zamora was removed. Azana saw that the Republicans needed order to stay in power but did not make many real attempts to unite them. When the Spanish Army generals declared their revolution in July, Azana decided that the best plan would be to arm the people which confirmed the right's fears of communism from the left. Azana's government introduced measures that transferred right-wing military leaders such as Francisco Franco to posts outside Spain, outlawed the Falange Española and granted Catalonia political and administrative autonomy.
Radical Republican who was popular with the workers because of his anti-church stance. Lerroux became the prime minister of Spain in 1933 because the president did not want to appoint the CEDA leader to Prime Minister. Lerroux also served as minister of war, minister of state, and minister of foreign affairs. Lerroux was involved in a corruption scandel and lost all credibility and in 1936 was not elected back into office and left the scene of the Spanish Civil War.
One of the chief conspirators in the uprising of generals that started the Spanish Civil war. In 1931 Sanjuro supported the newly formed Spanish Republic under Zamora, but later clashed with Prime Minister Azana and was demoted to a customs officer. He tried to organize a rebellion s Mola, Franco and Queipo de Llano to overthrow the leftist government in July of 1936 which started the Spanish Civil war. Sanjuro died in a plane crash when he was returning to Spainin 1932 in Seville, but the rebellion was crushed in Madrid after achieving success in Seville. He was sentenced to death but then released by Alejandro Lerroux and went into exile. While in exile he joined with generals Mola, Franco and Queipo de Llano to overthrow the leftist government in July of 1936. He died in a plane crash on his way to Spain after the start of the uprising.
October 5, 1935
POUM was formed as a communist opposition to Stalinism in 1935 by Andreu Nin and Joaquín Maurín, being heavily influenced by the thinking of Trotsky, in particular his Permanent Revolution thesis. The party was larger than the official Communist Party of Spain (PCE) (and its wing, the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia, PSUC) in Catalonia and theValencian Community. It was highly critical of the Popular Front strategy advocated by Joseph Stalin and the Comintern. However, they did take part in the Spanish Popular Front initiated by the leader of Acción Republicana, Manuel Azaña. The POUM tried to implement some of its radical policies as part of the Popular Front government, but these were resisted by the more moderate factions. The political disagreement would cause Nin to leave the government. During the Civil War the party began to grow in popularity and, alongside the anarchistConfederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), commanded the support of most of the proletariat in the zone not controlled by Francisco Franco's forces during the war. The British authorGeorge Orwell fought alongside members of the Independent Labour Party as part of the POUM militias, an experience recounted vividly in his book Homage to Catalonia. Likewise, the film Land and Freedom, directed by Ken Loach, tells of a group of POUM soldiers fighting in the war from the perspective of a British member of the British Communist Party, and deals in particular with his disillusionment with Soviet Union policy in the war.
Feb 16, 1936
Date of the important Spanish General Election. All 478 Seats in the Cortes Generales (representative body of government) were up. The Popular Front got 263 seats, the nationalists got 156 seats, and the center parties got 59 seats, meaning that the Popular front won the election. The Nationalists, unhappy with these results later started a coup which turned into a full blown civil war.
The Popular Front was a coalition of all left wing factions that fought against the rebel nationalists. it was composed of the UR (Union Republicana), the IR (Izquierda Republicana [Izquierda means left]), the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, the PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrera de Espana (Spanish Socialist workers party), UGT (Union General de Trabajadores), JJSS (Juventudes Socialistas), the PCE (Partido Comunista de Espana (Spanish Communist Party)), the JSU (Juventudes Socialistas Unificadas), the PSUC (Partido Socialista Unificado de Cataluna), the POUM (Parrido Obrero de unificacion Marxista), and the Libertarian Movement, composed of the CNT (Confederacion Nacional de Trabajo), the FAI (Federacion Anarquista Iberica), the FIJL (Federacion Iberica de Juventudes Libertarias), and the Mujeres Libres (the anarcho-feminist organization)
The Falange was a small fascist-style party founded by Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1933, which then merged in 1934 with the more proletarian JONS (Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista). There was tension between the 'modern reactionaries', who followe Jose Antonio and who believed in the nationalist ideals of Old Spain above everything else, and the socialist wing, which resented the way its anti-capitalist ideology was overriden by the upper class senoritos. The 'leftist' faction was even more disadvantaged by the vast influx of opportunists in 1936 and 1937. Its influence was crushed when Franco institutionalized the movement, amalgamating it with the Carlists.
-Falange Espanola Tradicionalista y de las JONS (FET)
-Flechas (Falangist youth movement)
-Auxilio Social (Falangist women's service)
This amalgam of the nationalist political movements, principally the falangists and the Carlists, was ordered by Franco in April 1937. He became its chief. The uniform of the movement combined the dark-blue shirt of the Falange and the red beret of the Carlists.
The Carlists supported the rival borbon line of Don Carlos, and stood for the idea of a traditionalist ultra-Catholic monarchy as opposed to Alfonsine monarchism, which they felt had been corrupted by nineteenth century liberalism. The leadership, particularly the Count of Rodenzo, tended to be court-orientated, while the base of mainly Navarrese smallholders was populist.
Requetes (Carlist Militia)
Pelayos (Carlist youth movement)
Margaritas (Carlist women's service)
Spanish Communist Party
The Partido Comunista de Espana (PCE) was composed of the Juventudes Socialistas Unificadas (JSU), and the Partido Socialista Unificado de Cataluna. in Spring 1936 this party came under complete control of the communists. The Spanish Communist Party joined forces with the Socialist party and Republican Union Party to form the Popular Front. This group was the coalition of most of the leftist groups, and faced off in elections against the National Front, a rightist coalition that included the CEDA and Carlists. The Popular Front released political prisoners while it was in power, which angered nationalists.
Instruccion reservada no.1
Calling of a meeting of the Nationalists generals by Mola to determine overall nationalist commander. Mola considered Franco as unfit and not part of the initial rebel group But Mola himself had been somewhat discredited as the main planner of the attempted coup that had now degenerated into a civil war, and was strongly identified with the Carlists monarchists and not at all with the Falange, a party with Fascist leanings and connections, nor did he have good relations with Germans; Queipo de Llano and Cabanellas had both previously rebelled against the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera and were therefore discredited in some nationalist circles; and Falangist leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera was in prison in Madrid (he would be executed a few months later) and the desire to keep a place open for him prevented any other falangist leader from emerging as a possible head of state. Franco's previous aloofness from politics meant that he had few active enemies in any of the factions that needed to be placated, and had cooperated in recent months with both Germany and Italy. On 1 October 1936, in Burgos, Franco was publicly proclaimed as Generalísimo of the National army and Jefe del Estado(Head of State). Mola was furious and Cabanellas intervened to calm the spirits down. When Mola was killed in another air accident a year later (which some believe was an assassination) (June 2, 1937), no military leader was left from those who organized the conspiracy against the Republic between 1933 and 1935.
Gerneral Emilio Mola
A general in the spring 1936 coup lead by general Sanjurjo. He became the "director" of the coup while Sanjurjo remained a figurehead. He declared the revolt in july 19, 1936. The next day Sanjurjo died in a plane crash and Mola became nationalist commander in the north while Franco became nationalist commander in the south. Franco then became nationalist commander in chief in September while Mola remained nationalist commander of the north, where he unsuccessfully tried to take Madrid. Mola died on June 3, 1937 in a plane crash.
UGT and CNT
The UGT (Union General de Trabajadores) and the CNT (Confederacion Nacional de Trabajos) were two trade unions and part of the popular front. The UGT was socialist while the CNT was anarcho-syndicalist. Although they were both part of the popular front, the UGT and CNT were rivals, and instances of violence between UGT and CNT members were recorded during the spanish civil war (Such as the assassination of Desiderio Trillas the head of the UGT dockers who was shot down by a group of CNT members because he had prevented them from receiving work several years earlier.)
Army of Africa
An army lead by Franco during the coup and later Spanish civil war, the army of Africa was composed of Spanish troops as well as the Spanish Foreign Legion and locally recruited Moroccan infantry and cavalry called Regulares. In total, the Army of Africa numbered 30,000 soldiers and was the most professional and effective fighting force in the 100,000-man Spanish Army.
The Spanish Civil War marked the first time in history in which the use of Airplanes had a large impact on the result of the war. Both sides in the Spanish Civil War recieved extensive air support. the Nationalist received airplanes from Italy but primarily from Nazi Germany. The Republic received a few Airplanes from France at the start of the war but received nearly all their air support from the Soviet Union. Several new tactics were developed due to the new use of airplanes, particularly Terror Bombing, which the Condor legion used extensively during the war.
The Nationalists were a coalition of all rightist forces (those who approved of the military coup in 1936). They were composed of the Carlists, Monarchists, and Falange, as well as the Spanish Army. Although they had different ideals they all favored some form of authoritarian government. The Nationalists recieved extensive foriegn aid, particularily from Nazi Germany. The Nationalists won the Spanish Civil War.
Feast of the assumption(aug 15, 1936)
Franco replaces Republican Flag of Seville with Monarchist Flag. This was a great ceremony held in Seville to adopt the old Monarchist flag, and to assert Franco's power over any of his rivals. It also served as a source of publicity for Franco, and got many new recruits for the Falange and Carlist movements.
Day of the Caudillo (oct 1, 1936)
The day in which Franco was sworn in as Generalismo of the Nationalist Army and Head of State of Spain. After this point there was no challenge to Franco's rule over the nationalist movement. Fascists saw this day as the birth of a new nation, while Carlists saw it as the start of a Catholic dictatorship.
The International Brigades (Spanish: Brigadas Internacionales) were military units made up of anti-fascist volunteers from different countries, who traveled to Spain to defend the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. The first brigades were composed mostly of French, Belgian, Italian, and German volunteers, backed by a sizeable contingent of Polish miners from Northern France and Belgium.
When Franco's fascist troops invaded Spain in July 1936 with the purpose of overthrowing the young and unstable Republic, the Spanish working class responded by making a revolution that went much further toward realizing the classless and stateless ideal of proletarian socialism than any preceding popular revolt. Spontaneously and almost overnight, workers seized factories and other workplaces; land was collectivized; workers' militias were formed throughout the country; the church--age-old enemy of all workingclass radicalism and indeed, openly profascist--was dismantled, and its property confiscated; established political institutions disintegrated or were taken over by workers' committees.
The Red terror refers to the terrorist actions done by the leftist (republican) side against various targets, such as churches and clergy. According to Antony Beevor - " The attacks on the clergy were bound to cause the greatest stir abroad, where there was little understanding of the Church's powerful political role. The Catholic Church was the bulwark of the country's conservative forces, the foundation of what the right defined as Spanish civilization..few foreign newspapers made the connection between the religious repression dating back to the Middle Ages and the violent anti-clericalism that developed in the nineteenth century."
In Spain, White Terror (also known as Represión Franquista) refers to acts of politically motivated violence committed by the Nationalist movement during the Spanish Civil War and during Francisco Franco's dictatorship.The mass executions started at the beginning of the civil war on July 1936 and continued after the war until 1945. the death toll of the White Terror was much higher than that of the Red Terror, although the White Terror occurred over a much longer period, continuing after the war. While most estimates of the Red Terror range from 38,000 to 55,000, most of the estimates of the "White Terror" range from 150,000 to 200,000. While most Red terror targets were that of the clergy, white terror targets were more designed to target civillians (SEE: GUERNICA.)
Battle of Madrid
The battle of madrid was a three year attack on the spanish capital, where nationalists attempted to conquer the defending republicans and workers who were defending it. The battle took place all over, and was bombed frequently with italian and german support. With madrid being the center of spain, taking it meant victory for the nationalists.
The Alcazar was a heavily fortified position inside the city of Toledo. The Alcazar was controlled by the Nationalists when the uprising of the generals occurred, and Republican forces soon laid siege to the Alcazar. About 800 Nationalists held out inside the Alcazar against 8,000 Republican forces until the Army of Africa could arrive and relieve the defenders. The siege lasted from the beginning of the coup, in mid July 1936 until late September. Republican forces made many attempts to take the Alcazar, even attempting to force a surrender by threatening to kill hostages taken from the town. One of these hostages was Luis Moscardó, the son of a colonel inside of the Alcazar, he spoke on the phone to his father who told him to die like a hero and that they would not surrender. Luis was later shot and became a martyr for the Nationalist cause. The whole siege of the Alcazar became a source of propaganda for the Nationalists, because they held for 2 months until Franco arrived to become the "savior of Alcazar".
Battle of Brunette
The Battle of Brunete (6 July - 25 July 1937), fought 15 miles west of Madrid, was a Republican attempt to alleviate the pressure exerted by the Nationalists on the capital and on the north during the Spanish Civil War. Although initially successful, the Republicans were forced to retreat from Brunete and suffered devastating casualties from the battle. At the close of the battle, the Republicans failed to cut the Extremadura road, but they still held Villanueva de la Cañada, Quijorna and Villanueva del Pardillo from the Nationalists. From this point of view, both sides were able to claim victory. The losses of men and equipment in the battle were much heavier for the Republicans than the Nationalists. Indeed, the Republican army lost much of its indispensable equipment and so many of their best soldiers in the International Brigades that the battle can be seen as a strategic Nationalist victory. Politically, the communists suffered a loss of prestige because the offensive failed to stop the Nationalist troops from completing the conquest of the north. Further destabilizing the Republican situation was the rebellion of many in the International Brigades against going back to the front. It took the Assault Guards to reestablish order and force the Brigadiers to undergo a reorganization and reeducation.
Battle in Argon
The Aragon Offensive in the Spanish Civil War was the Nationalist campaign that began after the Battle of Teruel. The offensive began on March 7, 1938, and ended in April 19, 1938. The offensive smashed the Republican forces and overran Aragon and conquered parts of Catalonia and the Levante.Air power decided this campaign. The plains of Aragon provided easy landing fields allowing rapid air support from close behind the front. Nationalist aircraft continually drove back the Republicans, forcing them to abandon position after position and attacked the retreating columns. Both Germans and Soviets learned valuable lessons about the use of fighters in support of infantry.
Policy of Non-Intervention
Nonintervention or non-interventionism is a foreign policy which holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations, but still retain diplomacy, and avoid all wars not related to direct territorial self-defense. This is based on the grounds that a state should not interfere in the internal politics of another state, based upon the principles of state sovereignty and self-determination. A similar phrase is "strategic independence".
The bombing of Guernica (April 26, 1937) was an aerial attack on the Basque town of Guernica, causing widespread destruction and civilian deaths during the Spanish Civil War. The raid by planes of the German Luftwaffe "Condor Legion" and the Italian Fascist Aviazione Legionaria was called Operation Rügen. The Basque government reported 1,654 people killed, but modern research suggests between 200 to 400 civilians died. Western countries viewed Guernica as an example of terror bombing and gained the impression that the Luftwaffe was committed to that tactic. The bombing was the subject of a famous anti-war painting by Pablo Picasso. The fascists claimed to have a target of the bridge that was at the entrance to the town, but missed it completely, and killed thousands of civillians instead.
Although the Soviet regime had moved quickly to capitalize on the war's potential via a domestic and worldwide solidarity campaign, the Kremlin was not immediately eager to become directly involved in the Spanish imbroglio. Moscow waited nearly ten weeks before supplying the first arms to the Loyalist side. Before committing himself militarily, Stalin took precautions to ensure that the entire aid operation would be carried out in strict secrecy. In addition, as if to prepare for the inevitable public disclosure of the assistance plan, throughout the month of September the Soviet representative to the Non-Intervention Committee made a series of statements that left open the possibility of Soviet military aid to the Loyalists. In the Republic itself, Stalin took pains to ensure that he had an elaborate organizational structure in place to monitor all support activities. To this end, diplomatic personnel and military advisors were dispatched to Spain in advance of the actual weaponry. At the same time, the question of financing was resolved through the Republic's commitment to send Moscow the better part of its gold stocks. In sum, Stalin took no action until he was assured that Soviet involvement in Spain would not have adverse economic or diplomatic effects on the USSR.
Falange Espanola Tradicionalista y de las JONS (april 1937)
The name assigned to several political movements and parties dating from the 1930s, most particularly the original fascist movement in Spain. The word Falange means phalanx formation in Spanish. During the Spanish Civil War, the Falangists fought on the Nationalist side against the Left-led Republic, being the fastest growing party on their side (from a few thousands to some hundred thousand members before the Unification). This sudden rise can be well explained; Franco used its ideological pillar.