BIO 102 - Chapter 21

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BIO 102 - Chapter 21 Quiz - Test 4

Which of the following is the correct pathway air takes during a human inhalation?

nasal passage; pharynx; trachea; bronchi; bronchioles; alveoli

Which of the following is NOT a typical type of lung damage that smoking causes?

All of the above are typical of the damage smoking causes.

Heart attacks are usually caused by an interruption in blood flow in the

coronary arteries.

Amphibians and reptiles have very similar circulatory systems. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about their systems?

Both systems have two atria and one ventricle, but in the amphibians, the ventricle is divided into two halves.

Amphibians have

two partially separated circuits of blood flow.

In human lungs, the windpipe branches into two bronchi. The bronchi then branch several times to become

bronchioles

Fish have a closed circulatory system that is unique among other complex vertebrates. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the fish's circulatory system?

All of the above are correct

Hearts found in organisms with open circulatory systems usually pumps the hemolymph directly into

extracellular spaces

The cardiac cycle of a heartbeat is often said to occur in phases of "lub" and "dup." What physical action of the heart muscle actually causes these two sounds?

"Lub" signifies the closing of the AV valves
"dup" signifies the closing of the semilunar valves.

Fish have:

a two-chambered heart

Birds and mammals have similar circulatory systems. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about their systems?

All of the above are correct statements

Why do many fish swim with their mouths open?

They do this to ventilate their gills

Animals like jellyfish and cnidarians acquire nutrients and oxygen by

direct diffusion

In fish gills, there are disk-like structures stacked along the filaments that contain the capillaries where gas exchange takes place. What are these disk-like structures formally called?

lamellae

Amphibians must constantly keep their skin moist because:

the moisture is essential to maintain gas exchange across the skin.

Which of the following statements is FALSE about breathing oxygen from air or water?

Water can hold more oxygen than air can, in an equal volume.

Why are the skins of amphibians and the lungs of mammals kept wet all the time?

Gas exchange works best when going from air into liquid.

Which of the following is measured in the polygraph test in order to detect the activity of the sweat glands?

skin conductance

Which of the following is NOT a diving adaptation?

faster heart rate

What circulatory problem leads most directly to the formation of varicose veins

malfunctioning valves in veins

Which of the following organisms has an open circulatory system?

grasshoppers

When blood leaves the right ventricle of the mammalian heart, to which location does it flow next?

the lungs

Which of the following is NOT a function of the blood plasma in vertebrates?

breaking down large carbohydrates into more easily absorbable smaller carbohydrates

What is the ratio of red blood cells to white blood cells in the human circulatory system under normal conditions?

1000 red : 1 white

Why is countercurrent exchange of oxygen in fish gills so efficient?

It maintains a concentration gradient between the water and the bloodstream for the entire time that the water and blood vessel are in close contact.

Fish have a closed circulatory system that is unique among other complex vertebrates. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the fish's circulatory system?

All of the above are correct.

Birds and mammals have similar circulatory systems. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about their systems?

All of the above are correct statements.

A person with a relatively high concentration of diphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) inside his red blood cells would be expected to have:

hemoglobin with reduced oxygen affinity.

The lymphatic system is a fluid transport system vital for human health. Instead of blood, this system transports _________, which fills its own capillaries and vessels and is made up of the _________________ fluid that bathes cells.

lymph; interstitial

Chickens' breast muscles are light in color. Chicken breast meat is mostly "white meat." This means that:

chicken breast muscle contains hardly any myoglobin.

Which of the following is NOT a typical type of lung damage that smoking causes?

All of the above are typical of the damage smoking causes.

Oxygen is carried in the blood stream, throughout the body via:

red blood cells.

Organisms with an open circulatory system:

pump blood throughout the spaces of their body cavity where it mixes with tissue fluids.

Blood has many important functions that are vital to our everyday existence. Which of the following is NOT one of these functions?

Blood keeps our bodies at homeostasis by maintaining a pH of 4.7.

Which of the following values indicate a realistic blood pressure reading for a person with LOW blood pressure?

90/60

Which of the following best describes the inhalation process?

The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract. The diaphragm is pulled lower, causing the rib cage to expand. The rapid increase in volume of the chest cavity causes air to be sucked into the lungs.

Which of the following is measured in the polygraph test in order to detect the activity of the sweat glands?

skin conductance

Oxygen is carried by the protein hemoglobin, which can be found in:

red blood cells

Hearts found in organisms with open circulatory systems usually pumps the hemolymph directly into:

extracellular spaces

Why is countercurrent exchange of oxygen in fish gills so efficient?

It maintains a concentration gradient between the water and the bloodstream for the entire time that the water and blood vessel are in close contact.

Blood flowing out of the narrow, thin-walled vessels in the tissues flows next into:

veins

Birds and mammals have similar circulatory systems. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about their systems?

All of the above are correct statements.

Amphibians must constantly keep their skin moist because:

the moisture is essential to maintain gas exchange across the skin.

Why do many fish swim with their mouths open?

They do this to ventilate their gills.

Which of the following is the name of the fluid in an insect's open circulatory system?

hemolymph

Why do cells require oxygen gas?

Cells need oxygen in order to convert sugar into ATP energy.

Blood pressure falls with distance from the heart. Using this information, which of the following properly lists the type of blood vessel from HIGHEST blood pressure to LOWEST blood pressure?

arteries; capillaries; veins

Both red blood cells and white blood cells are derived from cells in:

the bone marrow.

When blood leaves the right ventricle of the mammalian heart, to which location does it flow next?

the lungs

Fish have a closed circulatory system that is unique among other complex vertebrates. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the fish's circulatory system?

All of the above are correct.

What circulatory problem leads most directly to the formation of varicose veins?

malfunctioning valves in veins

Which of the following statements is NOT true about the diving adaptations of marine mammals like the Weddell seal?

Seals increase their blood pressure when they dive.

The hardening of arteries is known as:

arteriosclerosis

Why are the skins of amphibians and the lungs of mammals kept wet all the time?

Gas exchange works best when going from air into liquid.

Which of the following best describes the inhalation process?

The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract. The diaphragm is pulled lower, causing the rib cage to expand. The rapid increase in volume of the chest cavity causes air to be sucked into the lungs.

Fish have a closed circulatory system that is unique among other complex vertebrates. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the fish's circulatory system?

The heart pumps blood through the body first then past the gills.

A person with a relatively high concentration of diphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) inside his red blood cells would be expected to have:

hemoglobin with reduced oxygen affinity.

Which of the following statements about the crocodilian circulatory system is FALSE?

Crocodiles have open circulatory systems.

Which of the following components of the human blood is a cell fragment?

platelets

Llama hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen. This is because:

llamas evolved under conditions where the oxygen concentration (pO2) of the air is lower.

Blood has many important functions that are vital to our everyday existence. Which of the following is NOT one of these functions?

Blood keeps our bodies at homeostasis by maintaining a pH of 4.7.

Which of the following is NOT measured by a polygraph?

eye twitches

Which of the following is the correct pathway air takes during a human inhalation?

nasal passage; pharynx; trachea; bronchi; bronchioles; alveoli

Oxygen is carried in the blood stream, throughout the body via:

red blood cells.

With each heartbeat, the muscle cells coordinate themselves so that each contraction is forceful enough to circulate blood through the entire body. The beat begins in the _____________node, which sets the tempo of each beat, thus giving it the name of pacemaker.

sinoatrial

Which of the following is measured in the polygraph test in order to detect the activity of the sweat glands?

skin conductance

Which of the following is NOT a major difference between open and closed circulatory systems?

Open systems are only found in flat organisms, while closed systems are found in organisms with more complex shape.

What is the disadvantage of having a "single circuit" with the gills set between the heart and the rest of the tissues?

Organisms with this configuration cannot sustain as much activity as those with two circuits.

Which of the following organisms does NOT have a closed circulatory system?

Both a) and d) are correct answers.

Oxygen is carried by the protein hemoglobin, which can be found in:

red blood cells.

What might be the explanation for why crocodiles, but not other reptiles, have an "extra" artery to direct blood to the tissues directly from the right ventricle?

Crocodiles spend more time underwater and sending blood to inactive lungs makes no sense.

In what way are lymph ducts like veins in the cardiovascular system?

They both have one-way valves.

Which of the following CANNOT be done by a mammalian red blood cell?

undergo mitosis

When it comes to acquiring fuel and raw materials, why does the size of a multicellular eukaryotic organism matter? Choose the BEST explanation.

Larger organisms are made of more cells, most of which are no longer in direct contact with the outside world.

Which of the following is NOT a diving adaptation?

faster heart rate

Which of the following is NOT a typical type of lung damage that smoking causes?

All of the above are typical of the damage smoking causes.

The atrioventricular valves of the human heart have "heart strings" attached to the ventricular side of the valve flaps. These strings, properly called chordae tendinae, reach downward from the valves and attach to the bottom of the ventricles. They are long enough to just allow the valve flaps to shut. Which of the following is probably the biological role of the chordae tendinae?

They prevent the atrioventricular valve flaps from being "blown backwards" into the atria during ventricular contraction.

Organisms with an open circulatory system:

pump blood throughout the spaces of their body cavity where it mixes with tissue fluids.

Fish have have many chambers in their hearts?

two

Organisms with an open circulatory system:

pump fluid throughout the spaces of their body cavity where it mixes with tissue fluids.

Which of the following is NOT a likely characteristic of an organism that relies on simple diffusion for respiration?

low surface area to volume ratio.

The three principle functions of the vertebrate circulatory system are:

transport, protection, and body temperature regulation.

Oxygen is carried in the blood stream, throughout the body via:

red blood cells.

The hardening of arteries is known as:

arteriosclerosis.

Blood flowing out of the narrow, thin-walled vessels in the tissues flows next into:

veins

In human lungs, the windpipe branches into two bronchi. The bronchi then branch several times to become:

bronchioles.

Which of the following best describes how the ventricles of the heart contract?

from the bottom upwards

Which of the following values indicate a realistic blood pressure reading for a person with LOW blood pressure?

90/60

When blood leaves the right ventricle of the mammalian heart, to which location does it flow next?

the lungs

Both red blood cells and white blood cells are derived from cells in:

the bone marrow.

Which of the following statements is FALSE about breathing oxygen from air or water?

Water can hold more oxygen than air can, in an equal volume.

Which of the following CANNOT be done by a mammalian red blood cell?

undergo mitosis

Deoxygenated blood enters the heart through what vessels?

vena cavae

Which of the following is the correct pathway air takes during a human inhalation?

nasal passage; pharynx; trachea; bronchi; bronchioles; alveoli

Why do cells require oxygen gas?

Cells need oxygen in order to convert sugar into ATP energy.

Which artery below is the only one that carries DEOXYGENATED blood?

pulmonary artery

The three important functions of the lymphatic system are:

recycling fluid, retrieving nutrients, fighting illness.

Oxygen is carried by the protein hemoglobin, which can be found in:

red blood cells.

Heart attacks are usually caused by an interruption in blood flow in the:

coronary arteries.

What circulatory problem leads most directly to the formation of varicose veins?

malfunctioning valves in veins

functions of circulatory system

transporting various things throughout the body, temperature regulation within the optimum range for metabolic function, and protection agains infection by pathogens

diffusion

thin animals have all cells within ______ distance, so they don't need a circulatory system (ex: jellyfish)

open circulatory system

no clear distinction between the circulating fluid and interstitial fluid, heart(s) pump the hemolymph throughout the extracellular spaces inside the body (ex: insects and most mollusks)

hemolymph

fluid mixture in open circulatory systems

closed circulatory system

blood is contained within vessels that separate it from interstitial fluid, muscular heart propels blood through blood vessels to tissues throughout the body, occurs in all vertebrates

atrium

retrieving chamber of the heart

ventricle

pumping chamber of the heart

vessels

transport blood throughout the body

arteries

vessels that carry blood away from the heart and to the capillaries

capillaries

tiny porous vessels that bring blood close to tissue, enabling the diffusion of gases, nutrients, and other molecules into and out of the tissue

veins

vessels that carry blood away from the capillaries and back toward the heart

two-chambered heart

type of circulatory system that occurs in fish, has a single circuit flow

three-chambered heart

type of circulatory system that occurs in amphibians, has two circuits of flow

pulmonary circuit

blood is pumped to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen

systemic circuit

blood is pumped to the tissues of the body, where it delivers oxygen

four-chambered heart

type of circulatory system that occurs in mammals and birds, has two circuits of flow

the human circulatory system

composed of a fist-sized heart and an intricate system of blood vessels that transport respiratory gases, nutrients, and waste products throughout the body

the superior vena cava is located

at the very top left side of the heart

the right atrium is located

below the superior vena cava on the left side of the heart

the right ventricle is located

below the right atrium on the left side of the heart

the inferior vena cava is located

at the very bottom of the left side of the heart

the aorta is located

on the very top of the right side of the heart

the left atrium is located

below the aorta on the right side of the heart

the left ventricle is located

below the left atrium on the right side of the heart

the left side of the heart contains blood that is ______ in oxygen

poor

the right side of the heart contains blood that is ______ in oxygen

rich

heart sounds are caused by

the closing of heart valves

"lub"

atrioventricular valves slam shut, preventing blood from flowing back into the aorta

"dup"

semilunar valves slam shut, preventing blood from flowing back into the ventricles

pre-capillary sphincters

in the arterioles, these can contract and cut off blood flow to the capillaries in order to shunt it elsewhere in the body

contractions of muscles surrounding the veins

push blood toward the heart

valves within the veins

keep the blood on course by preventing it from moving backward

heart contraction

regular and rhythmic contractions initiated by the sinoatrial node, which then causes a wave of contraction to pass down the center of the heart and bounces back up, causing the ventricles to contract, then the ventricles relax

EKG

method of measuring heart contractions

the two major components of blood are

water and RBCs

the primary constituents of blood are

plasma and packed cells

plasma

salty water (90%), variety of molecules including metabolites and wastes, salts and ions, and hundreds of plasma proteins

packed cells

RBCs (90%+), WBCs, platelets

red blood cells

transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body, flexible disks containing few organelles, packed full of hemoglobin

white blood cells

destroy pathogens and foreign organisms in the bloodstream and interstitial fluid

platelets

slow blood loss by initiating constriction of blood vessels and the formation of a clot, composed of small pieces of cytoplasm, contain no organelles

blood pressure

measures the strain on the walls of the arteries when the ventricles are contracting and when the ventricles are relaxed

systolic pressure

when the ventricles are contracting

diastolic pressure

when the ventricles are relaxed

heart attack

caused when there is an interruption in the flow of blood through one of the coronary arteries

cardiovascular disease

includes all diseases of the heart and blood vessels, including heart attacks and strokes. generally begins with the development of fatty deposits on the inner walls of arteries

artheriosclerosis

cholesterol circulating in the bloodstream forms a fatty plaque that reduces the flow of blood

arteriosclerosis

calcium deposited in the plaque, causing it to harden

low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

"bad" cholesterol, tends to adhere to artery walls where it can initiate the buildup of dangerous plaques

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