Injury to a hollow abdominal organ would MOST likely result in:
leakage of contents into the abdominal cavity.
Pain that radiates to the right lower quadrant from the umbilical area, nausea and vomiting, and anorexia are MOST indicative of
Which of the following statements regarding gastrointestinal bleeding is correct?
Bleeding within the gastrointestinal tract is a symptom of another disease, not a disease itself.
Which of the following organs lies in the retroperitoneal space?
Peritonitis may result in shock because:
fluid shifts from the bloodstream into body tissues.
Which of the following organs would MOST likely bleed profusely if injured?
A 59-year-old male presents with a sudden onset of severe lower back pain. He is conscious and alert, but very restless and diaphoretic. Your assessment reveals a pulsating mass to the left of his umbilicus. You should:
administer oxygen and prepare for immediate transport.
The MOST common and significant complication associated with an acute abdomen is:
Esophageal varices MOST commonly occur in patients who:
drink a lot
The MOST important treatment for a patient with severe abdominal pain and signs of shock includes:
transporting the patient without delay.
Patients with acute abdominal pain should not be given anything to eat or drink because:
substances in the stomach increase the risk of aspiration
Most patients with abdominal pain prefer to:
lie on their side with their knees drawn into the abdomen.
Solid abdominal organs include the:
spleen, kidneys, and pancreas.
Patients with uncontrolled diabetes experience polyuria because:
excess glucose in the blood is excreted by the kidneys.
When assessing an unconscious diabetic patient, the primary visible difference between hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia is the:
rate and depth of breathing.
Insulin functions in the body by:
enabling glucose to enter the cells.
The normal blood glucose level, as measured by a glucometer, is between:
80 and 120 mg/dL.
You respond to a movie theater for a 70-year-old male who is confused. His wife tells you he has type 2 diabetes but refuses to take his pills. Your assessment reveals that the patient is diaphoretic, tachycardic, and tachypneic. Initial management for this patient should include:
applying a nonrebreathing mask at 15 L/min.
Which of the following conditions is the diabetic patient at an increased risk of developing?
Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when:
insulin is not available in the body.
You are treating a 40-year-old male with a documented blood sugar reading of 300 mg/dL. The patient is semiconscious and breathing shallowly, and is receiving assisted ventilation from your partner. You should recognize that definitive treatment for this patient includes:
Classic signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include:
cool, clammy skin; weakness; tachycardia; and rapid respirations.
In contrast to insulin shock, diabetic coma:
can only be corrected in the hospital setting.
Ketone production is the result of:
fat metabolization when glucose is unavailable.
Glutose is a trade name for:
Oral Glucose. Used to treat hypoglycemia by providing direct glucose for the cells.
Diabetic coma is a life-threatening condition that results from:
hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and dehydration.
Hypoglycemic crisis tends to develop more often and more severely in children because:
they do not always eat correctly and on schedule.
Which of the following statements regarding sickle cell disease is correct?
In sickle cell disease, the red blood cells are abnormally shaped and are less able to carry oxygen.
Diabetes is MOST accurately defined as a(n):
disorder of carbohydrate metabolism.
Insulin shock will MOST likely develop if a patient:
takes too much of his or her prescribed insulin.
Which of the following statements regarding diabetic coma is correct?
Diabetic coma typically develops over a period of hours or days.
Excessive eating caused by cellular "hunger" is called:
Proper procedure for administering oral glucose to a patient includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
ensuring the absence of a gag reflex.
Patients with type 2 diabetes usually control their disease with all of the following, EXCEPT:
You respond to a residence for a patient who is "not acting right." As you approach the door, the patient, a 35-year-old male, begins shouting profanities at you and your partner while holding a baseball bat. The man is confused and diaphoretic, and is wearing a medical identification bracelet. You should:
retreat at once and call law enforcement.
To which of the following diabetic patients should you administer oral glucose?
a confused 55-year-old male with tachycardia and pallor
Kussmaul respirations are an indication that the body is:
ATTEMPTING TO ELIMINATE ACIDS FROM THE BODY
When obtaining a SAMPLE history from a patient with diabetes, it would be MOST important to determine:
if he or she has had any recent illnesses or excessive stress.
Assessment of a patient with hypoglycemia will MOST likely reveal:
Which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?
The brain requires glucose as much as it requires oxygen.
Type 1 diabetes:
Occurs most often in children & young adults: Pancreas produces little or no insulin; Onset is rapid, increase in thirst & urination, constant hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, and extreme fatigue. Treated with daily insulin therapy, healthy eating, & exercise
Common signs and symptoms of diabetic coma include all of the following, EXCEPT:
cool, clammy skin.
The signs and symptoms of insulin shock are the result of:
decreased blood glucose levels
You have administered one dose of epinephrine to a 40-year-old female to treat an allergic reaction that she developed after being stung by a scorpion. Your reassessment reveals that she is still having difficulty breathing, has a decreasing mental status, and has a blood pressure of 80/50 mm Hg. You should:
request permission from medical control to give another dose of epinephrine.
Chemicals that are responsible for the signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction to a bee sting include:
histamines and leukotrienes.
Epinephrine is indicated for patients with an allergic reaction when:
wheezing and hypotension are present.
When using an auto-injector to give epinephrine, the primary injection site is the:
lateral portion of the thigh.
The two MOST common signs of anaphylaxis are:
wheezing and widespread urticaria.
Urticaria is the medical term for:
Immediately after giving an epinephrine injection, you should:
properly dispose of the syringe.
Which of the following medications blocks the release of histamines?
Which of the following negative effects of anaphylaxis will be the MOST rapidly fatal if not treated immediately?
upper airway swelling
Common signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction include all of the following, EXCEPT:
drying of the eyes.
Which of the following MOST accurately defines an allergic reaction?
an exaggerated immune system response to any substance
A 73-year-old man presents with a generalized rash, which he thinks may have been caused by an antibiotic that he recently began taking. He has a history of coronary artery disease, hypertension, and emphysema. He is conscious and alert, his blood pressure is 144/94 mm Hg, and his pulse is 64 beats/min and regular. You auscultate his breath sounds and hear scattered wheezing, although he is not experiencing respiratory distress. In addition to administering oxygen, you should:
contact medical control if needed, transport the patient, and monitor him for signs of deterioration.
When administering epinephrine via auto-injector, you should hold the injector in place for:
The adult epinephrine auto-injector delivers ______ mg of epinephrine, and the pediatric auto-injector delivers ______ mg.
Common side effects of epinephrine include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Most patients who die of anaphylaxis do so within the first __________ following exposure.
Anaphylaxis is MOST accurately defined as a(n):
extreme allergic reaction that may affect multiple body systems.
Which of the following sounds indicates swelling of the upper airway?
Because the stinger of a honeybee remains in the wound following a sting:
it can continue to inject venom for up to 20 minutes.
The poison control center will be able to provide you with the most information regarding the appropriate treatment for a patient with a drug overdose if the center:
A poison that enters the body by __________ is the MOST difficult to treat.
An overdose on acetaminophen, the active ingredient in Tylenol, will MOST likely cause:
As you enter the residence of a patient who has possibly overdosed, you should:
Be alert for personal hazards
After administering activated charcoal to a patient, it is MOST important to:
be alert for vomiting.
Activated charcoal administration is contraindicated in patients who have ingested:
acids or alkalis.
In an apparent suicide attempt, a 19-year-old female ingested a full bottle of amitriptyline (Elavil). At present, she is conscious and alert and states that she swallowed the pills approximately 30 minutes earlier. Her blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg, her pulse is 140 beats/min and irregular, and her respirations are 22 breaths/min with adequate depth. When transporting this patient, you should be MOST alert for:
Heroin is an example of a(n):
Your unit is dispatched to the county jail for an intoxicated inmate. Upon arrival, you find the patient, a 33-year-old male, lying supine in a jail cell. He is responsive to painful stimuli only and has slow, shallow respirations. You should be MOST concerned that this patient:
may vomit and aspirate.
You are dispatched to a local nursery for a 39-year-old female who is sick. When you arrive, you find the patient lying on the floor. She is semiconscious, has copious amounts of saliva coming from her mouth, and is incontinent of urine. You quickly feel her pulse and note that it is very slow. Initial management for this patient should include:
The MOST commonly abused drug in the United States is:
A hypnotic drug is one that:
Hypotension, hypoventilation, and pinpoint pupils would be expected following an overdose of:
During your assessment of a 50-year-old male who was found unconscious in an alley, you note that he has slow, shallow respirations; significant bradycardia; facial cyanosis; and pinpoint pupils. As your partner begins assisting the patient's ventilations, he directs your attention to the patient's arms, which have multiple needle tracks on them. This patient's clinical presentation is MOST consistent with:
a heroin overdose
Which of the following statements regarding inhaled poisons is correct?
Lung damage may progress after the patient is removed from the environment.
A person who routinely misuses a substance and requires increasing amounts to achieve the same effect is experiencing a(n):
Common names for activated charcoal include all of the following, EXCEPT:
DTs is a syndrome associated with withdrawal from:
It is MOST important to determine a patient's weight when asking questions pertaining to a toxic ingestion because:
activated charcoal is given based on a patient's weight.
Substance abuse is MOST accurately defined as:
knowingly misusing a substance to produce a desired effect.
Activated charcoal is given to patients who have ingested certain substances because it:
binds to the substance and prevents absorption.
Which of the following questions would be of LEAST pertinence during the initial questioning of a patient who ingested a substance?
Why was the substance ingested?
The usual dose for activated charcoal is up to ______ for a pediatric patient and up to ______ for an adult patient.
25 g, 50 g
Most poisonings occur via the __________ route.
Signs and symptoms of a sympathomimetic drug overdose include:
You respond to a college campus for a young male who is acting strangely. After law enforcement has secured the scene, you enter the patient's dorm room and find him sitting on the edge of the bed; he appears agitated. As you approach him, you note that he has dried blood around both nostrils. He is breathing adequately, his pulse is rapid and irregular, and his blood pressure is 200/110 mm Hg. Treatment for this patient includes:
attempting to clam him and giving hime oxygen if tolerated
It is MOST important for the EMT to remember that suicidal patients may:
be homicidal as well.
The first step in assessing a patient with a behavioral emergency is to:
ensure your safety
Which of the following is an example of a functional behavioral disorder?
The term "behavioral crisis" is MOST accurately defined as:
Any reaction that interferes with activities of daily living or is deemed unacceptable by others.
When assessing a patient who is displaying bizarre behavior, the EMT should:
consider that an acute medical illness may be causing the patient's behavior.
People at risk for suicide include all of the following, EXCEPT:
married males older than 30 years.
From a mental health standpoint, an abnormal or disturbing pattern of behavior is a matter of concern if it lasts for at least:
You are assessing a 45-year-old female who is severely depressed. She states that it seems as though her entire world is crashing down around her. She further states that she has had frequent thoughts of suicide, but is not sure if she can actually go through with it. How should you manage this situation?
Ask the patient if she has developed a suicidal plan
General guidelines for managing a patient with a behavioral emergency include:
being prepared to spend extra time with the patient.
You receive a call for a domestic dispute. When you arrive at the scene, you find a young male standing on the front porch of his house. You notice that an adjacent window is broken. The patient has a large body, is clenching his fists, and is yelling obscenities at you. Which of the following findings is LEAST predictive of this patient's potential for violence?
his large body
You respond to a call for an unknown emergency. When you arrive at the scene, the patient's husband meets you at the door and states that his wife has been depressed and has locked herself in an upstairs bedroom. He further tells you that he keeps his handgun in the bedroom. You should
The single most significant factor that contributes to suicide is: