What ancient religions opposed cremation
Judaism and Christianity
What ancient societies and religions embraced cremation
Indians (Hinduism), Greeks, Romans, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persions, and Thracians
When did cremation lose its dominance in the West
"With the rise of Christianity, First Century C.E"
Where and why was cremation first practiced
We don't know, however, cremation seems to have been a standard practice for the ancients with the exception of the Egyptians, the Chinese, and the Hebrews
When did modern cremation begin
Late 19th Century
Who invented the first modern retort
Dr. Francis Julius LeMoyne
How did the ancients practice cremation
Publicly on a crude outdoor pyre
Docetism maintained Jesus consisted of pure spirit and only appeared to have a material body.
Docetism maintained that Jesus was a prophet with a body consisting of flesh and blood like ordinary men.
Branded as heretics by the early Church for their beliefs in a stark dualism between spirit and matter.
Cremationists countered arguments against cremation made by resurrectionists by spiritualizing the resurrection, and in essence reviving Docetism,
Resurrectionists supported cremation
Which crematory paved the way for the West Coast revolution in the American way of cremation?
Odd Fellows Crematory
The period from 1896 to 1963 when crematories mused about building the perfect crematory and columbarium.
The Bricks and Mortar Period
Which of the following were crematory heat sources during the Bricks and Mortar Period?
1, 2, & 5
Why did Herb Hargrave suggest the act of cremation should be considered a means to the beauties of the columbarium?
1. To compete with cemetery based crematories
2. To sell prospective cremation families not on the retort but the niche
3. To compete with undertakers
1 & 2
Which national cemetery foreshadowed the modern development of funeral personalization in the 1930s by encouraging families to decorate cremation niches with flowers and photographs of the deceased?
Chicago's Bohemian National Cemetery
In the first few decades of the 20th Century, which group creatively combined Hinduism and Islam and gave cremation a boost?
In the Sikh culture, who would push the retort button to commence cremation?
The closest relative
Which of the following groups supported cremation during the Bricks and Mortar Period?
4. traditional clergymen
1, 2, & 3
Which branch of Judaism was most accepting of cremation during the late 19th and early 20th Centuries?
What was the nation's most influential, pro-cremation document in the Bricks and Mortar Period?
Light Like the Sun
Which of the following individuals helped reverse the declining cremation trend in 1963?
1. Jessica Mitford
2. Pope Paul VI
3. Kevin Davis
4. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
1 & 2
Who pioneered the Telophase Society and direct cremation for profit?
Thomas B. Weber
Who was the CEO of the Neptune Society when it was established in 1977?
Which of the following were nicknames for Charles Denning?
1. Old Bake & Shake
2. Colonel Sanders of the Death Industry
3. Colonel Cinders
4. Old Smokey
2 & 3
What was unique about the location of John Lennon's memorial ceremony?
It took place anywhere and everywhere
Which of the following countries exceeded the U.S. in cremation in the 1990s?
1. Great Britain
1, 2, & 4
What groups remained opposed to cremation in the U.S. through the end of the millennium?
1. conservative Christians
4. African Americans
1, 2, 3, & 4
When did most funeral directors finally embrace cremation marketing?
Which of the following individuals was the executive director of Funeral and Memorial Societies of America and wrote the do-it-yourself manual, Caring for the Dead: Your Final Act of Love?
Economic considerations are not included as a factor affecting cremation trends because cremation customers tend to be affluent.
Any refractory construction intended to change the direction of flow or velocity of the products of combustion.
A solid surface upon which material with high moisture content, or liquids, or waste material which may turn to liquid before burning, is placed for drying or burning.
A normal wear condition experienced with refractory that has the appearance of peeling:
General wear in isolated areas of a retort can be tolerated up to what depth?
Which of the following would most likely result in fluid runoff during a cremation?
A large body
Which of the following statements are true regarding pathogens and the embalming process?
1. embalming sterilizes the body
2. some pathogens survive over 24 hours after embalming
3. the embalming process eliminates all pathogens
Which of the following is/are true regarding exposure control plans?
1. they are a set of written guidelines
2. they identify exposure risks in the workplace
3. they should list appropriate precautions to minimize risks
4. they include work practice controls
5. they include the use of personal protective equipment
1, 2, 3, 4, & 5
A set of standards for a company that provide consistency.
Policies and Procedures Manual
Which of the following should be the first cremation of the day and placed in a cool retort?
1. remains weighing more than 300 LBS
2. remains in a highly polished casket
3. remains in a cremation casket
4. remains in plain wooden casket
5. remains in a cardboard container
1, 2, & 4
The simplest method for identifying remains:
How often should crematory record requests be updated by a funeral home?
At least once each year
Which of the following statements are true regarding a funeral/cremation provider's identifying tag on a decedent?
A) use tags that can't be removed unless they're cut
B) customarily placed around decedent's ankle
C) tags should be constructed of paper
D) tags should be waterproof
a, b, & d
Cremation authorization forms should include which of the following:
1. identity of authorizing agent
2. detailed explanation of the processing procedure for cremated remains
3. acknowledgement that commingling of cremated remains is inevitable
4. permission to embalm remains prior to cremation
1, 2, & 3
Which of the following are steps in the due diligence process funeral homes utilizing third party crematories should follow?
1. reviewing funeral home's internal procedures
2. reviewing licenses and operational records of crematory
3. reviewing financial records of crematory
4. interview crematory management
5. inspect crematory unannounced
1, 2, 4, & 5
When using an outside crematory, what are the responsibilities of the funeral home?
1. The crematory conducts the cremation in a legal manner
2. The crematory acts professionally
3. The crematory operates ethically
4. The crematory is certified by the National Funeral Director's Association
1, 2, & 3
The cremation container should bear some means of identification of the deceased.
When should dental gold be removed?
The legal entity or the authorized representative of the legal entity who conducts the Cremation
The building that houses the Cremation Chamber
3. Holding Facility
1 & 2
The benefits of crematory operator training include which of the following?
1. learning what environmental authorities expect
2. learning how to work with cremation equipment
3. learning what can go wrong with cremation equipment
4. learning how to remove pacemakers
1, 2, & 3
According to the Nixon Consulting Survey conducted in 2006 and 2007, crematories make little profit from their business and funeral homes generally make no added money operating a crematory.
Many cremation consumers use the Internet when choosing a provider because it offers protection from a perceived high pressure sales environment encountered in funeral homes.
Which of the following do consumers perceive as benefits of using the Internet when selecting cremation services?
2. low pressure
3. more information
1, & 2
The challenge for the funeral professional is to become comfortable with the design of meaningful services with or without the body present.
Which of the following is a modern fuel source for cremation that requires storage tanks?
. In Florida, more than one dead human body may be placed in a retort at one time:
1. if a national emergency is declared
2. when mass fatalities are encountered
3. when funeral home/and or crematory resources are unavailable to refrigerate or embalm remains
4. when written permission has been received from a legally authorized person for each body
In Florida, the cremation must be performed within how many hours after the specified time which has been agreed to in writing by the person authorizing the cremation?
In Florida, the operator of a cineratory facility must establish written procedures for the removal of cremated remains.
How long after receipt of cremated remains does a disposer (CRD) have to dispose of cremated remains in California?
In the state of New Hampshire, how long must the crematory authority retain copies of the cremation authorization form, permit for transit or cremation, cremated remains receipt form, delivery receipt form, and any other records?
At least seven years after cremation
Which of the following comprise the catalyst used in alkaline hydrolysis?
1 & 3
. The by-products of alkaline hydrolysis are considered bio hazardous in nature and must be treated accordingly
Which of the following are used to accelerate the dissolving of flesh and soft tissue in the bio-cremation process?
Which of the following terms are synonymous with alkaline hydrolysis?
1. water resolution
4. chemical decomposition
1, 2, & 3
Which of the following is a flameless method of cremation which involves freezing the body with liquid nitrogen?