EMT- Ch 19 Toxicology (AAOS)

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Toxicology

opioids

medicines with actions similar to morphine

toxicology

the study of toxic or poisonous substances

poison

any substance whose chemical action can damage body structures or impair body function

opioid

signs/symptoms: hypoventilation, pinpoint pupils, sedation, hypotension

sympathomimetics (epinephrine, albuterol, cocaine, methamphetamine)

signs/symptoms: hypertension, tachycardia, dilated pupils, agitation, hyperthermia

anticholinergics (atropine, Jimson weed)

signs/symptoms: tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypertension, dilated pupils, dry skin, sedation, agitation, decreased bowel sounds

cholinergics (pilocarpine, nerve gas)

signs/symptoms: excess defecation or urination, muscle fasciculation, pinpoint pupils, excess salivation, airway compromise, nausea, vomiting

inhalation, ingestion, injection, absorption

4 avenues for a poison to enter the body

flood skin with water to dilute

how to treat a poison that has been been in direct contact with patients skin

administer oxygen to

possible way to treat patient who has inhaled a poison

activated charcoal

possible way to treat a patient who has ingested a poison

25 to 50 grams

adult dose of activated charcoal

acids, alkalis, or petroleum products

toxins that are contraindication for activated charcoal

12.5 to 25 grams

pediatric dose of activated charcoal

sedative

this is a substance that decreases activity and excitement

hypnotic

this is a substance taht enduces sleep

vomiting

emesis means what

blood coming from mouth

hematemesis

delirium tremens (DTs)

withdrawal that may have hallucination, restlessness, fever, seating, disorientation, agitation, and seizures

opioids

CNS depressants that can cause severe respiratory depression

opioids

signs/symptoms: drug that causes respiratory depression, including a decreased volume of inspired air and decreased respirations; nausea, vomiting, pinpoint pupils

naloxone (Narcan)

antidote to reverse opioid overdose

sedative-hypnotic drugs

these drugs are CNS depressants and they alter the level of consciousness and present respiratory depression

abused inhalants

favorite for kids; effective and lethal dose are close; patient's own adrenaline can put them in to cardiac arrest

sympathomimetics

drugs that mimic the effects of the sympathetic nervous system; hypertension, tachycardia, and dilated pupils

hallucinogens

this drug alters a persons sensory perceptions; presents with severe behavioral changes

anticholinergic agents

these drugs affect the parasympathetic nerves; agitated, tachycardic, dilated pupils

cholinergic agents

these agents overstimulate normal body function controlled by the parasympathetic system resulting in salivation, mucous secretion, urination, crying and abnormal heart rate

50g/adult; 25g/child

usual dose of activated charcoal for adult and child

1-2g/kg

range of activated charcoal for an adult

substance abuse

this is the misuse of any substance to produce a desired effect

InstaChar, LiquiChar, Actidose

trade names for activated charcoal

15 sec

max time to suction and airway

how much?
patients weight?

during a poison call the hospital wants to know what

what was it?

during a poison call poison control wants to know what

tolerance

term for needing more to have the same effect

staphylococcus

bacteria that grows on food to produce food poisoning

salmonella

this organism produces the direct effects of food poisoning

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