Chapter 3 - SOCI

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Sociology

That the human body is ugly and that its natural tendency is to debility and disease and mans only hope is to avert these characteristics through use of influences of ritual and ceremony.

Anthropologist Horace Miner's description of the body ritual among the Nacirema is used to show

Culture

The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior is known as

Society

A group that shares similar cultures

Society

. a group that lives in the same territory

Society

Relatively independent of people outside their area

Society

largest form of a human group

Culture Industry

The Schaefer text indicates that Theodor Adorno as being associated with

cultural universals

According to George Murdock, general customs and practices that are found in every culture are called

Ethnocentrism

The tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others is called

William G. Sumner

The concept of ethnocentrism was originally formulated by

Ethnocentrism

A member of a new fundamentalist church believes that she has found the one true way to achieve salvation and members of other religions are pagans and will go directly to hell when they die. This individual is

Functionalist Perspective

Ethnocentrism is the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others. Therefore, ethnocentrism fosters cohesion in a group. This observation would best reflect which sociological perspective?

cultural relativism

A U.S. sociologist receives a grant to study racial and religious prejudice among the people of Southeast Asia. The sociologist makes a serious and unbiased effort to evaluate the norms, values, and customs of these groups in light of the distinctive cultures of which they are a part. This is an example of

value neutrality

The concept, cultural relativism, employs the kind of ________in scientific study that Max Weber saw as being so important.

Sociobiology

how biology affects human social behavior and stresses the universal aspects of culture

Sociobiologist

somebody that studies Altruistic acts that ensure the survival of the next generation

Discovery

Involves making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality

Invention

Something that results with existing cultural items are combined into a form that did not exist before

Inventions

According to the discussion in Chapter Three, cultural phenomena such as communism, the Episcopal religion, and the microwave oven are examples of

Starbucks

Schaefer uses _______ to illustrate the rapid globalization of culture?

Diffusion

The process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society.

McDonaldization

its associated with the melding of cultures, through which we see more and more similarities in cultural expression.

Cultural Diffusion

English-speaking people in the U.S. commonly use words whose origins are from various African, Asian, and non-English-speaking European cultures. This is an example of

Functionalist

Given that cultural diffusion could upset the stability of a society, which theoretical perspective is likely to argue that most cultures resist new cultural components that do not fit comfortably into their social system?

McDonaldization

the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world.

Technology

Cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires.

Material culture

The physical or technological aspects of our daily lives are called

More

Nonmaterial culture is (more)/(less) resistant to change than material culture

Material

A basketball arena, an airliner, a slice of pizza, and a television set would all be considered examples of ________ culture

William F. Ogburn

Which researcher made the distinction between the elements of material and nonmaterial culture?

Culture lag

the period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions.

Material

Culture lag occurs because people are more likely to change their (material)/(nonmaterial) culture.

Subculture

a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society.

Subculture

In the U.S., professional gamblers, Armenian Americans, teenagers, and nudists are all examples of

argot

The use of the terms "g-man," "honey boat," and "airmail" by sanitation workers in New York is an example of an

Interactionist

According to the ______ perspective suggests that language and symbols offer a powerful way for a subculture to feel cohesive and maintain its identity.

Functionalist

An argot is a specialized language used by members of a subculture. Doctors and nurses, for example, have developed a language system that is not easily understood by patients, but enables medical professionals to communicate more easily, rapidly, and precisely with one another. Which sociological perspective is likely to emphasize the value of this specialized medical language?

Conflict

Which sociological perspective argues that subcultures often emerge because the dominant society has unsuccessfully attempted to suppress a practice regarded as improper, such as the use of illegal drugs?

subcultural and countercultural

Armed militia groups, such as the one that was involved in the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, are an example of a

culture shock

The feeling of surprise that is experienced when people witness cultural practices different from their own is known as

culture shock

A man goes to a urologist who has been recommended by his family physician. When the urologist greets him in the examining room, the man discovers that the urologist is a female, and he is startled that a woman will examine him. He is experiencing

culture shock

A member of a rural Indian tribe in Central America who is suddenly taken to a large city, such as Mexico City, will probably experience

Increased

Since Europeans first came to Brazil, Brazil's indigenous population has (declined)/(increased) in number.

ben hemmed in on the reservations the government confined to them

One implication of land development for Brazil's indigenous people is that their ability to fish and hunt has

Struggling to remain

One implication of land development for Brazil's indigenous people is that their culture is

Language

An abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture is called

language

Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf formulated a hypothesis concerning the role of ______in shaping cultures.

Sapir-Whorf

In some parts of the U.S., horse breeding and/or racing is commonplace. People involved in these activities have developed different words to distinguish between breeds, sizes, and sexes of horses, and these words are unfamiliar to people outside the "horse world." This is an example of

Feminist perspective

In the study of language, which sociological perspective suggests that gender-related language reflects the traditional acceptance of men and women into certain occupations?

interactionist

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to suggest that nonverbal communication, such as the frequency of individuals touching each other during a conversation, varies from one culture to another?

Norms

The established standards of behavior maintained by a society

Norms

Must be widely shared and understood to become significant

Laws

"governmental social control" meaning that laws are formal norms enforced by the state.

Laws

In American society, we often formalize norms into

Informal Norms

Generally understood but not precisely recorded.

Mores

norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society, often because they embody the most cherished principles of a people.

Folkways

Norms governing everyday behavior, the violation of which raises comparatively little concern, are known as

Folkways

Within the traditional Buddhist areas of Southeast Asia, in the sleeping cars of trains, women do not sleep in the upper berths above men, hospitals that house men on the first floor do not place women patients on the second floor, and on clotheslines, women's attire is hung lower than that of men. These are examples of

It is weakly enforced, it conflicts with another, there's an exception, or they're subject to change

Norms are often violated when

Interactionist

sociological perspective would maintain that the laws of a society are created by the groups in power and help those groups maintain their superior status?

Sanctions

Penalties and rewards for conduct relating to a social norm are known as

formal positive sanction

A Girl Scout works hard on a difficult project, and when she has completed her work, she is given a badge that she can wear on her uniform. This is an example of

negative formal sanction

A worker is frequently late, takes extended "coffee breaks," and makes numerous mistakes while working on important tasks. As a result of poor performance, the worker is fired. This is an example of

values

Collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper, as well bad, undesirable, and improper, are known as

Equal opportunity, achievement and success, practicality and efficiency, activity and work

Robin Williams created a list of basic values to help define the national character of people living in the USA. List four of these basic values:

being very well-off financially

In surveys of first-year college students over the last 40 years, which value was shown to be the strongest gain in popularity?

developing a meaningful philosophy of life

In surveys of first-year college students, which value was shown to have the most decline over the past 40 years?

Culture war

refers to the polarization of society over controversial cultural elements such as abortion, religious expression, gun control, or sexual orientation.

Benevolence

Psychologist Shalom Schwartz researched values in more than 60 countries and found which values to be the most widely shared?

dominant ideology

set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests

Conflict perspective

Which sociological perspective would argue that the most powerful groups and institutions control wealth, property, and the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media?

Germany

In which country did Wal-Mart have to pull out in 2006 due in part to the company's failure to adjust to the national culture?

Functionalist Perspective

The USA formerly demanding conformity to a single language reflects which sociological perspective?

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