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1. Which of the following is not a major role of hormones?
a. Growth stimulation
b. Erythrocyte synthesis
c. Fluid balance and regulation
d. Metabolic rate regulation

Erythrocyte synthesis

2. The release of hormones from glands is most often controlled by:
a. Negative feedback mechanisms
b. Nephrogenic mechanisms
c. Ectopic hormone production
d. Active transport

Negative feedback mechanisms

3. The most common cause of endocrine disorders is:
a. Surgical removal of endocrine glands
b. Infection
c. Adenomas
d. Immunodeficiency

Adenomas

4. Excess cortisol is represented by which condition?
a. Addison disease
b. Cushing syndrome
c. Diabetes insipidus
d. Hyperthyroidism

Cushing syndrome

5. Diabetes insipidus, if left untreated, will rapidly develop into:
a. Malignant hypertension
b. Diabetic coma
c. Dehydration
d. Metabolic alkalosis

Dehydration

6. A patient is asked to collect a 24-hour urine test to check a hormone level. Why is the 24-hour urine needed?
a. To measure female reproductive hormone levels
b. To obtain a measurement of hormone secretion over time
c. It is easier than obtaining a blood sample
d. Urine is not an effective method of measuring hormone levels

To obtain a measurement of hormone secretion over time

7. You are experiencing constipation, dry skin, weight gain, and cold intolerance. Which condition are you most likely experiencing?
a. Hyperthyroidism
b. Addison disease
c. Cushing syndrome
d. Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism

9. Which type of hormone is not produced in the adrenal cortex?
a. Mineralcorticoids
b. Glucocorticoids
c. Adrenal sex hormones
d. Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters

10. Diagnosis of SIADH is based on which of the following?
a. Hyponatremia
b. Hypertonicity
c. Increased urine volume
d. Dilute urine with a low sodium content

Hyponatremia

8. Which of the following occurs with elevated levels of cortisol?
a. Fatty acids are mobilized
b. Glucose levels are suppressed
c. Plasma protein levels increase
d. Inflammation increases

Fatty acids are mobilized

1. Which of the following is caused by the release of insulin?
a. Decreased blood glucose level
b. Increased blood glucose level
c. Increased lipid breakdown
d. Increased protein breakdown

Decreased blood glucose level

2. Which of the following is not true of type 1 diabetes?
a. Can be treated with oral glycemic agents
b. Pancreas is completely unable to produce insulin
c. Acute onset
d. Definite genetic link

Can be treated with oral glycemic agents

3. Which of the following is not true about type 2 diabetes?
a. Accounts for up to 95% of diabetics
b. Gradual onset
c. Significant weight loss occurs as a symptom
d. Risk factors are hypertension, family history, and obesity

Significant weight loss occurs as a symptom

4. Which of the following is not a sign of DKA?
a. Kussmaul respirations
b. Dehydration
c. Ketonuria
d. Low blood glucose level

Low blood glucose level

5. Which laboratory test is the best predictor of blood glucose control over the previous few months?
a. HbA1c
b. Fasting blood glucose
c. Urinalysis
d. Feasting (postprandial) blood glucose

HbA1c

6. Neuropathies are a potential complication of diabetes. Why do these occur?
a. Infection in the nerves
b. Thickening and ischemia of the vessels that supply the nerve fibers
c. Inability to provide continuous glucose to the brain and spinal cord
d. Excessive glucose exposure to the brain and spinal cord

Thickening and ischemia of the vessels that supply the nerve fibers

7. What is the major difference between the Somoygi effect and the dawn phenomenon?
a. One is caused by the release of certain hormones
b. One occurs between 4 and 9 a.m.
c. One triggers insulin resistance and the release of glucose from the liver
d. One is characterized by hyperglycemia that is not triggered by overnight hypoglycemia

One is characterized by hyperglycemia that is not triggered by overnight hypoglycemia

8. What would happen if your patient did not have alpha cells of the pancreas?
a. They would not be able to secrete insulin
b. They would not be able to secrete somatostatin and gastrin
c. They would not be able to secrete glucagon
d. They would not be able to secrete pancreatic polypeptides

They would not be able to secrete glucagon

9. What would be an unusual sign in a child that may alert the parent to the presence of diabetes?
a. Bedwetting in a child that was previously dry through the night
b. Irritability
c. Asking for water to drink in the middle of the night
d. All of these

All of these

10. What is your explanation to the parents who do not want to give their child insulin injections to treat type 1 diabetes because they have heard that pills can be used to treat this condition?
a. Insulin is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract if taken orally, so it must be injected subcutaneously
b. The child can go ahead and take the oral medication because he does have type 1 diabetes
c. The child cannot take the pills because we can't be sure that he would take the entire dose
d. The pills are reserved for those over the age of 12

Insulin is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract if taken orally, so it must be injected subcutaneously

1. Which of the following does not affect diffusing capacity?
a. The partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide
b. The alveolar surface area
c. The density of the alveolar membrane
d. The volume of air in the atmosphere

The volume of air in the atmosphere

2. Total obstruction of the airway by aspirated material is manifested by:
a. Hoarse cough
b. Rapid loss of consciousness
c. Dyspnea
d. Inflammation of the mucosa

Rapid loss of consciousness

3. A reduced number of erythrocytes (RBCs) in the blood results in the following change in the oxygen saturation (SaO2) of the blood:
a. The SaO2 would increase
b. The SaO2 would decrease
c. The number of RBCs will not affect the SaO2
d. There will be a decrease only if the osmotic pressure of the blood is also decreased

The number of RBCs will not affect the SaO2

4. Which is a major cause of respiratory failure?
a. Aspiration
b. Atelectasis
c. Sepsis
d. All of these

All of these

5. Emphysema differs from chronic bronchitis in that emphysema:
a. Is characterized by mucus production and inflammation
b. Obstructs the large airways
c. Obstructs the alveoli
d. There are no differences between the two conditions

Obstructs the alveoli

6. You have admitted a 20-year-old male to the emergency room with a history of asthma. He is having an acute asthma attack and is wheezing, fighting for air, hypoxic, and afraid. What is causing these acute symptoms?
a. Relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle with dry mucous membranes
b. Constriction of the bronchial smooth muscle and air trapping
c. Acute destruction of lung tissue
d. Contraction of the elastic fibers of the lung

Constriction of the bronchial smooth muscle and air trapping

7. Which of the following clinical manifestations are related to hypoxemia?
a. Cyanosis
b. Cough
c. Chest pain
d. Hemoptysis

Cyanosis

8. How would you know you have hypoxemia?
a. Radiograph
b. Measure the partial pressure of oxygen in blood
c. Measure the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in blood
d. All of these detect hypoxemia

Measure the partial pressure of oxygen in blood

9. Which of the following can trigger acute respiratory distress syndrome?
a. Severe lung infection
b. Inhaling toxic fumes
c. Aspirating stomach contents into the lungs
d. All of these

All of these

10. What is the major problem in cystic fibrosis
a. Formation of cysts in fibrotic tissues
b. Pancreatitis
c. Lung injury
d. Electrolyte and water transport

Electrolyte and water transport

In evaluating modifiable cardiovascular risk factors for your patient, which one is NOT considered modifiable?
a. Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
b. Hyperlipidemia
c. Hypertension
d. Female gender

Female gender

2. Your patient is experiencing peripheral edema, hepatomegaly, ascites, and splenomegaly. Which of the following conditions would be consistent with the patient's findings?
a. Endocarditis
b. Myocardial infarction
c. Right-sided heart failure
d. Left-sided heart failure

Right-sided heart failure

3. It is a very hot summer day. Your neighbor stops at your house after jogging 5 miles. She is sweating and tells you she feels dizzy and thirsty and can't make it home. You check her blood pressure and find it to be LOW. What could you do right in your home to raise her blood pressure?
a. Place a cold washcloth on her head
b. Have her drink a large glass of cool water
c. Have her take a shower with warm water
d. Encourage her to take slow, deep breaths

Have her drink a large glass of cool water

4. You neighbor again comes to your door (see previous question). She has been running in the snow and it is very cold outside. She has a headache and her heart is pounding. Again you check her blood pressure and find it to be HIGH. What could you do this time right in your home to decrease her blood pressure?
a. Have her drink some hot chocolate
b. Have her lay down on your couch
c. Let her take a hot shower
d. Give her something really salty to eat

Have her lay down on your couch

5. Which of the following situations of altered perfusion could be triggered by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
a. Impaired cardiac output
b. Impaired circulation
c. Ventilation-perfusion mismatching
d. Excessive cardiac demand

Ventilation-perfusion mismatching

6. Which mechanism increases peripheral vascular resistance and contributes to the development of hypertension?
a. Impaired sodium excretion by the kidneys
b. Parasympathetic nervous system overstimulation
c. Reduced renin-angiotensin-aldosterone secretion
d. None of these

Impaired sodium excretion by the kidneys

7. Which is not a requirement for effective perfusion?
a. Absence of chronic disease
b. Adequate blood volume
c. Functional systemic circulation
d. An open airway

Absence of chronic disease

8. Your neighbor tells you that she was in the hospital and they told her she had a bundle branch block. What does this mean?
a. She cannot conduct electrical impulses to stimulate the heart ventricle to contract
b. She has had a cardiac arrest
c. She is experiencing obstructed P wave depolarization of the atria
d. She has an excessive calcium influx causing prolonged myocardial contraction

She cannot conduct electrical impulses to stimulate the heart ventricle to contract

9. You are listening to your lab partners heart in skills lab and you hear the "lub dub" sound. What are you hearing?
a. The sodium ions rapidly influxing into the cells
b. The closure of the heart valves
c. The contraction of the left ventricle
d. Blood forcing its way through the aorta

The closure of the heart valves

10. At what point in the cardiac cycle do you measure preload?
a. Just after systole
b. Just before systole
c. During systole
d. It is not possible to measure preload

Just before systole

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