Chapter 5 - SOCI

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Sociology

can influence the type of social interactions that occur.

Philip Zimbardo's study of a simulated prison environment that used college students as prisoners and prison guards demonstrated that a social structure can

Social interaction

the mutual influence of two or more people on one another's behavior that brings about a relationship. This relations form the basis of the social structure in a community.

Social structure

What term refers to the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships?

the reality of humans is shaped by our perceptions and evaluations. Humans respond to behavior based on the meaning we attach to the actions of others. Humans interpret or define each other's actions.

According to Herbert Blumer, the distinctive characteristic of human interaction is that

Most husbands do not call their wife by their name.

According to the textbook, what is true regarding marriage in Japan?

Define a societies abilities

One of the most crucial aspects of the relationship between dominant and subordinate groups is the ability of the dominant group to

Interactionist

William I. Thomas notes that people respond not only to the objective features of a person or situation but also to the meaning that the person or situation has for them. He called this concept the "definition of the situation". This view represents which sociological perspective?

Status

Which term is used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society?

Statuses

Juan, Jessica, and Dillon are science majors. When they graduate from college, they find jobs as a nurse, a midwife, and a hospital administrator, respectively. These new positions are examples of

Enrolled at a four-year university

Ray is an African American who is currently enrolled at a four-year university where he is studying social work. Four statuses are mentioned in that sentence. Which of the statuses is an achieved status?

the person's unique talents or characteristics.

An ascribed status is a social position "assigned" to a person by society without regard to

From Puerto Rica

Roberto Clemente Walker was a baseball player from Puerto Rica, who played for the Pittsburgh Pirates. He was also involved in relief work in Latin America and died in an aviation accident on December 31, 1972, while en route to deliver aid to earthquake victims in Nicaragua. Which of Robert Clemente's statuses mentioned here is an ascribed status?

Conflict Perspective

Which sociological perspective is especially interested in ascribed statuses, because they often confer privileges or reflect a person's membership in a subordinate group?

His or her own efforts

An achieved status is a social position attained by a person largely through

A writer

Maya Angelou is a writer, a daughter, and an African American woman. Which of these statuses is an achieved status?

master status

status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position within society

Master Status

When Malcolm X was in the eighth grade, one of his teachers dismissed Malcolm's desire to be a lawyer and instead suggested he become a carpenter, the teacher viewed Malcolm's race as a(an)

his inability to move his legs

Rick is a professional sports reporter. He has worked at a local TV station for 12 years. Every year he hosts a telethon for the local trauma center that saved his life after a car accident which left him unable to move his legs. According to your text, what is Rick's master status?

His marital status

You walk into a women's studies class, and you look at the person sitting to your left. He is the only male in the class; he is about 20 years old, wears a wedding ring, and carries a bag with a tennis racquet. Which of his characteristics is most likely his master status in the context of this class?

Social Role

What term is used by sociologists to refer to a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status?

Functionalist perspective

Which sociological perspective emphasizes that social roles contribute to a society's stability by enabling members to anticipate the behavior of others and to pattern their own actions accordingly?

Role Conflict

is used to refer to incompatible expectations that arise when the same person holds two or more social positions?

Role conflict

Elena is a clinical sociologist who practices marriage and family therapy. She is also a college professor. One of her current students asks her if she can make an appointment for a therapy session. Elena tells the student that she will refer her to a colleague because she feels that holding therapy sessions with a student might create role

role conflict

A woman in her mid-30s has enrolled in a local community college to earn a degree in horticulture. The night before her first major course examination, she is asked by her boss to work several additional hours because they have just received a major order that needs to be processed immediately. This student is experiencing

Role strain

The difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations is known as

role exit

In her study of ex-convicts, divorced men and women, recovering alcoholics, ex-nuns, former doctors, retirees, and transsexuals, Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh used the concept of ________ to define the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one's self-identity and the reestablishment of an identity in a new role.

group

any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who regularly and consciously interact.

primary group

characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.

Primary groups

Which type of group plays a pivotal role in the socialization process and the development of roles and statuses?

Secondary group

Which term is used to refer to a formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding?

in-group

According to William Graham Sumner, any group or category to which people feel they belong is called a

out-group

According to William Graham Sumner, any group to which people feel they do not belong is called a

Functionalist perspective

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to emphasize that "we" and "they" feelings promote in-group solidarity and a sense of belonging?

out-group vices

Proper behavior for the in-group is often viewed as unacceptable behavior for the out-group. Sociologist Robert Merton describes this process as the conversion of "in-group virtues" into

Conflict perspectives

The destructive consequences of tensions between in-groups and out-groups would probably be stressed by which sociological perspective?

Reference group

term used by sociologists when speaking of any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior.

Functionist perspective

Which sociological perspective would emphasize the role of reference groups in setting and enforcing standards of conduct and belief?

Reference group

A college law enforcement major watches the behavior of television police detectives with great admiration. These detectives could be considered

social network

a series of social relationships that links a person directly to others, and through them, indirectly to still more people

most students were involved in a free-flowing network of relationships.

Bearman, Moody, and Stovel's study of romantic relationships and social networks of high school students showed

useful

Social network connections that are weak may be

Social networking

A group of businesswomen meet on a monthly basis to assist one another in advancing their careers. They give each other job leads and advice, and they invite business leaders to attend their sessions to provide further assistance. This group is an example of

social network

Weight gain in one person is often related to weight gain of that person's

Virtual world

A three-dimensional model, two-dimensional icon, or constructed personality provided by an Internet site is referred to as a(an)

Virtual world

Participants assume an avatar. Politicized and consumer-oriented. Preserve real-world networks.

social institution

organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs

Functionalist perspective

Which sociological perspective suggests that a society or a relatively permanent group must accomplish certain major tasks if it is to survive?

Functional prerequisites

tasks that a society or relatively permanent group must accomplish if it is to survive

Replacing personnel

What functional prerequisite was not fulfilled by the religious sect known as the Shakers?

providing and maintaining a sense of purpose

The patriotic behavior of U.S. citizens on January 21, 2013 to witness the Inauguration of President Barack Obama is a testament to the functional prerequisite of

the privileges of the powerful individuals and groups within a society.

The conflict perspective holds that social institutions maintain

the effect social institutions had on them

Sociologist Mitchell Duneier studied the social behavior of women working as word processors as a method of researching social networks and

Interactionist perspective

Mitchell Duneier's work regarding social networks operates from which sociological perspective?

Formal organizations

Special-purpose groups designed and structured in the interests of maximum efficiency are known as

size, specificity of goals, and degree of efficiency.

ways in which formal organizations can vary

bureaucracy

component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency.

Max Weber

Which sociologist emphasized the basic similarity of structure and process found in the otherwise dissimilar enterprises of religion, government, education, and business?

ideal type

A construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which specific cases can be evaluated is called

Division of Labor

By working at a specific task, people are more likely to become highly skilled and carry out a job with maximum efficiency. This is the rationale for the bureaucratic characteristic of

Interactionist perspective

Which sociological perspective might observe the division of labor among the staff members in a hospital emergency room and focus on how the allocation of responsibilities affects their relationships with one another?

Alienation

In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels charged that the capitalist system reduces workers to a mere "appendage of the machine," which leads to extreme

Alienation

The estrangement of workers from the larger society is called

Job security

What does Marx and conflict theorists believe is weakened by restricting workers to very small tasks?

trained incapacity

The tendency of workers in a bureaucracy to become so specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems was defined by Thorstein Veblen as

division of labor

As explained in the text, the public attention given the failure of various government intelligence-gathering organizations to detect the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 illustrates which poorly functioning aspect of government bureaucracy?

hierarchy of authority

A college is run by a board of trustees, which hires a president, who in turn selects vice presidents, deans, and other administrators. This is an example of the bureaucratic characteristic of

overzealous conformity to official regulations within a bureaucracy

According to Robert Merton, goal displacement is

Goal displacement

A woman and her two children walk into a homeless shelter. They are obviously starving, dirty, and the children are crying. The shelter attendant refuses them admittance, although there is ample room in the shelter, because the mother does not have the proper identification card. This is an example of

The peter principle

The notion that every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence is referred to as

Bureaucratization

the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic

of organizational life according to which even democratic organizations will become bureaucracies ruled by a few individuals

According to the German sociologist Robert Michels, the "iron law of oligarchy" is

people in leadership roles have skills, knowledge, or charismatic appeal.

Oligarchies emerge because

the scientific management approach

Activists in a large city join forces to create a new organization with the goal of preserving landmark buildings that have historical importance. At first, the organization functions democratically, but over time it is taken over by three people. These leaders establish a bureaucratic structure that helps them to maintain control of the organization. These developments can be best explained by

economic rewards

According to the classical theory of formal organizations, workers are motivated almost entirely by

the role of people, communication, and participation among the company executives.

Planning based on the human relations approach focuses on

mechanical

Émile Durkheim suggested that as a society becomes more complex, the nature of solidarity becomes more

Gesellschaft

Ferdinand Tönnies used the term __________ to refer to communities that are large, impersonal, and often urban, with little consensus concerning values or commitment to the group.

Gemeinschaft.

Ferdinand Tönnies would view hunting-and-gathering societies as examples of a

Gemeinschaft.

In a small town in the Midwest, all of the children attend the same school and most of the community members attend the same church. Everyone in this community knows everyone else, and they have shared numerous experiences with one another. This community would be characterized by Ferdinand Tönnies as

Gesellschaft relationships

Today, Steve went into a grocery store where a stranger checked out his purchases and another stranger bagged his groceries. Then he went to Wendy's and purchased a hamburger from another stranger, and on his way home he stopped at an intersection, where an unknown police officer raised her hand. According to Ferdinand Tönnies, these experiences are all characteristic of

Technology

In Gerhard Lenski's view, societal organization is highly dependent on its level of

Sociocultural evolution

According to Gerhard Lenski, what is the long-term trend in societies that results from the interplay of continuity, innovation, and selection?

hunting-and-gathering society

According to Gerhard Lenski's typology of societies, a preindustrial society in which people rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available in order to live is called

hunting-and-gathering society

The Yanomamö, a South American culture, live in a village and spend most of their time searching for food and tending small gardens. Their primary tool is a stone ax, which they use for cutting down trees to expand their gardens. The Yanomamö are an example of a(an)

Agrarian society

In the most technologically advanced form of preindustrial society, members are engaged primarily in food production. They increase their crop yields through such innovations as the plow. According to Lenski, this type of society is called

1760-1850

The industrial revolution, pushing societies from agrarian-based economies to those dependent on mechanization first appeared in what period of history?

social structure in society

Ferdinand Tönnies, Émile Durkheim, and Gerhard Lenski provided three visions of

postindustrial society

A society whose economic system is engaged in the processing and control of information is called

postmodern society

A society that is primarily concerned with providing services rather than manufacturing goods is

Functionalist perspective

Daniel Bell views postindustrial societies as consensual, because he believes that postindustrial societies are characterized by interest groups concerned with such national issues as health, education, and the environment working for the common good. Bell's view represents which sociological perspective?

postmodern society

A technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images is called

postmodern society

In the U.S., we listen to music imported from Jamaica, eat sushi and other Japanese foods, and watch movies produced in Italy. These are all features of

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