Micro chapter 9

52 terms by kingl2

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RNA is characterized by which of the following features?

Ribose

DNA is characterized by which of the following features?

dexyribose & thymine

DNA replication is ?

semiconservative

The term antiparallel?

refers to the opposite orientation of the two strands in DNA

The lagging strand?

is necessary due to the properties of the enzymes and the antiparallel nature of DNA

The specific sequence of nucleotides in the DNA to which the RNA polymerase binds is the?

promotor region

how many nucleotides are in a codon?

3

Which molecule carries an anticodon?

tRNA

A stop codon?

codes for no amino acid

Some segments of the precursor mRNA in eukaryotes are non-coding and are called?

introns

Gene regulation may entail?

...

The regulatory protein?

may inhibit or enhance transcription

The set of genes in bacteria that are linked together and transcribed as a single unit is referred to as an?

operon

The molecules that bind to a repressor and cause it to no longer bind to the operator are called?

inducers

The DNA site to which the repressor protein binds is the ?

operator

Does the presence of introns/extrons in eukaryotic cells more potential diversity in gene products (proteins) than is possible in prokaryotic cells?

it does, exons/introns can be spliced together in different ways post-transcription to yield different mRNA (and therefore, different proteins). Bacteria lacks this system, so the gene you transcribe is translated into the only protein you will end up getting

Which change in a gene's DNA sequence would have the least effect on the evntual amino acid sequence produced from it?

addition/deletion of 3 consecutive nucleotides

Segments of DNA capable of moving from one area in the DNA to another are called?

transposons

Gene transfer that requires cell-to-cell contact is?

conjugation

DNA polymerase is able to proofread the DNA sequence? true/false

true

Among the microorganisms, various genomes can include?

...

The ___ is all of the genetic material of a cell?

genome

Each ___ is a specific segment of the DNA with the code for production of one function product?

gene

The expression of genetic traits is the ?

phenotype

Each nucleotide is composed of ?

1 phosphate, 1 nitrogeneous base, 1 sugar

The duplication of a cell's DNA is called?

replication

During replication, each parent DNA strand serves as a ___ for synthesis of new DNA strands?

template

Semiconservation replication refers to?

an original parent DNA strand and one newly synthesized DNA strand comprising a new DNA molecule

DNA polymerase III ?

synthesizes new DNA only in the 5 to 3 direction

Okazaki fragments are attached to the growing end of the lagging strand by ?

DNA ligase

DNA gyrase ?

supercoils DNA

Helicase ?

unwinds DNA

A permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called ?

mutation

Groups of three consecutive bases along the DNA of a gene have the code for one ?

amino acid

The three-base sequence on DNA that codes for an amino acid is called a ?

codon

The RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis are called ?

transfer RNA

This molecule is synthesized as a copy of a gene on the DNA template strand ?

messenger RNA

RNA molecules differ from DNA molecules becuase only RNA ?

...

RNA polymerase binds to the ?

promotor sequence

If a codon for alanine is GCA, then anticodon is ?

CGU

Which is incorrect about inducible operons?

have genes turned off by a buildup of end product

Synthesis of a repressible enzyme is inhibited by ?

corepressor and repressor binding to operator

Synthesis of an inducible enzyme requires ?

substrate bound to repressor

Gene regulation can involve a protein repressor tht blocks ___ from initiating transcription?

RNA polymerase

Repressible operons require that ___ bind to the repressor protein before it can bind to the operator ?

the product

A mutation that changes a normal codon to a stop codon is called a ____ mutation ?

nonsense

The most serious type of mutation is a ___ mutation?

frameshift

A frameshift is caused by __ mutations?

deletion & insertion

What type of mutation alters the base, but not the amino acid being coded for?

silent

The transfer of DNA fragments from a dead cell to a live, competent recipient cell that results in a changed recipient cell is ?

transformation

The jumping of a gene from one location to another is done by ?

transposons

In Griffith's experiments with S. penumonieae, rough nonencapsulated streptococci were converted into smooth encapsulated Streptocci in the presence of the heat-killed smooth encapsulated Streptococci. What is the term that describes this process?

transformation

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