endoplasmic reticulum

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The endoplasmic reticulum

is a large system of membranes that accounts for a majority of all membranes in a eukaryotic cell

there are two different kinds of ribosomes

free ribosomes and bound ribosomes

free ribosomes

...

bound ribosomes

...

ribosomes are inportant because

...

the endoplasmic reticulum

...

there are two different kinds of ER

smooth er and rough er

smooth er

is not involved in protein synthesis. it is the site of the synthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids

it is called smooth er because

it has no ribosomes on its surface

smooth er

creates steroids and stores ions so that the cell can have them when it need it.

rough er

get its name because it surface is studded covered with ribosomes and is the site of synthesis for certain proteins

The rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) is a

a complex membrane-bound organelle and is involved in the transport of the proteins made by ribosomes on its surface. Found in eukaryotic cells — the cells of plants, animals, and humans

the rough endoplasmic reticulum changes with the needs of the cells

When the cell is actively making proteins, the rough ER can enlarge and become more complex.

Ribosomes that dot its surface move onto the membrane as they begin to

make protein and move off when they are done.

The function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is intimately bound to the

production and transport of proteins in the cell.

. Both types are present in

plant and animal cells

Cells specialising in the production of proteins will tend to have a larger amount of

rough ER

cells producing lipids (fats) and steroid hormones will have a greater amount of

smooth ER

The smooth ER is responsible for a variety of vital cell processes that include

carbohydrate metabolism, lipid synthesis, calcium storage, and drug and poison detoxification

carbohydrate metabolism

refers to the production, storage and use of carbohydrates within organisms.

lipid synthesis

...

calcium storage

...

The smooth ER is the source of many important enzymes that important in

lipid synthesis

Animal cells involved in hormone secretion are

rich in smooth ER, which is fitting given the role of the smooth ER in steroid and hormone production

the ER

IS a series of canals that connects the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the cell

the ribosomees on the rough ER serce as the

place for the synthesis of proteins that are directed by the genes to be put together in the ER

the main function of ER is to make and transport

proteins

carbohydrates

A component of food that supplies energy (calories) to the body.

Three broad categories of carbohydrates are

sugars (also called simple carbohydrates), starches (also called complex carbohydrates), and fiber.

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