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studying therapy

psychotherapy

techniques employed to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustments to life

three major approaches to therapy

insight: personal understanding
behavior: maladaptive behaviors
Biomedical: mental illness and medical treatments, such as drugs

insight therapies

Variety of therapies to improve psychological functioning by increasing awareness of underlying motives and improvement in thoughts feelings and or behavior

Insight therapies

Types:
psychoanalytic/psychodynamic
cognitive
humanistic group family and marital therapies

psychoanalysis

Freudian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts to consciousness

5 major types of psychoanalysis

free association, dream analysis (latent=real and manifest=symbolic)
analyzing resistance, analyzing transference,interpretation

psychoanalysis

major criticisms
limited applicability
lack of scientific credibility

modern psychodynamic therapy

a briefer more directive and more modern form of psychoanalysis focusing more on the conscious processes and current problems

cognitive therapies

cognitive therapy: therapy that treats problem behaviors and mental processes by focusing on faulty thought processes and beliefs
Self Talk: internal dialogue; the things people say to themselves when they interpret events

Cognitive therapies

cognitive restructuring process in cognitive therapy to change the destructive thoughts or inappropriate interpretations
Cognitive-behavior therapy; combines cognitive therapy changing faulty thinking and behavior therapy changing faulty behaviors

rational emotive behavior therapy

cognitive therapy to eliminate emotional problems through rational examination of irrational beliefs
albert ellis

beck's cognitive therapy

distorted thinking patterns
selective perception focus on negative events
overgeneralization
magnification; exaggerated undesirables and shortcomings
all or nothing thinking; seeing things in black or white no grey areas

evaluating cognitive therapies

highly effective for: depression, anxiety disorders, bulimia, anger mgmt, addiction, procrastination, some forms of schizophrenia,
insomnia
criticisms: ignoring unconscious, overemphasis on rationality, minimizing importance of the past, uses behavior techniques rather than changing cognitive structure

humanistic therapies

rogers' client centered therapy: emphasizes client's natural tendency to become healthy and productive
techniques: empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness, active listening

evaluating humanistic therapies

support: evidence of success
criticisms: core concepts are difficult to empirically test, data on outcomes rely on self reports from clients, mixed results on specific therapy techniques

group family and marital therapies

group therapy: a number of people meet together to work toward a therapeutic goal
family and marital: work to change maladaptive family and couple interaction patterns

behavior therapies

behavior therapy; group of techniques based on learning principles used to change maladaptive behaviors
three foundations of behavior therapy; classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning

classical conditioning

systematic desensitization gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear by working through a hierarchy of fearful stimuli while remaining relaxed

aversion therapy

pairing an aversive unpleasant stimulus with a maladaptive behavior

operant conditioning

operant conditioning techniques to INCREASE adaptive behaviors: shaping; successive approximations of target behavior are rewarded; includes role-playing, behavior rehearsal, assertiveness training

operant conditioning

operant conditioning techniques used to DECREASE maladaptive behaviors:
extinction; withdrawal of attention
punishment: adding or taking away something (time out)

observational learning

modeling: watching and imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors
participant modeling: combining live modeling with direct and gradual practice
Bandura

evaluating behavior therapies

support for use in: phobias, ocd, eating disorders, autism, intellectual disabilities, delinquency
criticism: generalizability to the "real world" outside therapy,ethics related to control

biomedical therapies

Biomedical therapy: uses physiological interventions, such as drugs, to treat psychological disorders
three forms of biomedical therapy:
psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, psychosurgery

psychopharmacology

four major categories of drugs:
antianxiety; increases relaxation, reduces anxiety and muscle tension
antipsychotic: treats hallucinations and other symptoms of psychosis
mood stabilizers: treats manic episodes and depression
antidepressants: treats symptoms of depression

electroconvulsive therapy

biomedical therapy based on passing electrical current through the brain:
used almost exclusively when other methods have failed
likely affects mood controlling neurotransmitters

psychosurgery

surgical alteration of the brain to bring about desirable behavioral, cognitive and emotional changes
generally used when patients have not responded to other forms of therapy
lobotomy: outmoded medical procedure for mental disorders that involved cutting nerve pathways between the frontal love and the thalamus and hypothalamus
cingulotomy: limited but still being done; destroy part of the cingulum which is part of the limbic system and associated with emotion

eclectic approach

combining techniques from various theoris to find the most appropriate treatment

institutionalization

involuntary commitment:
generally can occur if people are believed to be: dangerous to self or others, believed to be in serious need of treatment, no reasonable alternatives.
deinstitutionalization: discharging patients from mental hospitals as soon as possible and discouraging admissions

finding therapy

critical/urgent need:
hospital emergency services, hotlines
have time to search:
ask for referrals, university/college counseling centers, seeking therapist best suited for your goals

culture and therapy

cultural similarities in therapy: naming the problem, qualities of the therapist, therapist credibility, familiar framework, techniques that bring relief, special time and place

culture and therapy

cultural differences: therapies in individualistic cultures emphasize independence, the self and control over one's life
therapies in collective cultures emphasize interdependence

gender and therapy

key considerations for women and therapy:
higher rates of diagnosis and treatment, stresses of poverty, stresses of aging, violence against women, stresses of multiple roles

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