Old Regime/Age of Absolutism/Louis XIV
a time period when all the important powers in Europe were absolute monarchs, including King of France) the political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution. It was very unfair to most of its people, and was the cause of the French Revolution.
In France's Old Regime. They made up 1% of the population and owned 10% of France's land. It provided education and relief services for the poor people of the Church and 2% of the income went to the government.
In France's Old Regime. They made up 2% of France's population, 20% of the land, and paid nearly no taxes. Many had political influence. Most scorned Enlightenment tactics and ideals because it threatened their position in France.
3rd Estate-Peasants, Urban Poor, Bourgeoisie
In France's Old Regime made up 97% of France's population. It was made up of the Bourgeoisie, the Urban poor, and the peasants. Bourgeoisie was the bankers, factory owners, merchants, and professional artisans of society. They were often well-educated and believed in equality and liberty. They were burdened by heavy taxes. They thought they should have more political power and social status. The urban poor were paid low wages and often were out of work and went hungry. Peasants were 80% of the population and paid half their income to the other Estates and the government. They represented the first and second Estates for what they had and were eager for change.
Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette
The King and Queen of France during the Old Regime. easily bored with affairs of state. He lacked the ability to make decisions and the determination to see policies through. When he took action it was often based on poor advice from ill-informed members of his court. unpopular queen because of her lavish spending and her involvement in controversial affairs.
An assembly of representatives from all three of the estates or social classes. Unfortunately the Third Estate's large numbers was ill-represented by the same number of representatives as the two other estates which essentially made the system fail.
A French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people. This, in effect, proclaimed the end of the absolute monarchy and the beginning of a representative government. When the delegates were locked out of their meeting room they made the Tennis Court Oath.
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in which they vowed to continue meeting until a new constitution had been made.
Storming the Bastille
Rumors flew and people started to get weapons together to defend themselves against whatever forces and opposition may be approaching as the French Revolution progressed. A mob of Parisians searching for gunpowder revolted. The mob overwhelmed the guard and seized control of the building. This became a symbol of the Revolution.
Wild rumors circulated the countrysides that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize peasants. Armed with pitchforks and various other weapons they broke into nobles houses and destroyed papers that tied them to the manors.
Women's March to Versailles
In October 1789, Parisian women rioted over the rising price of bread. Armed with knives, axes, and various other weapons, they marched to Versailles (the King and Queen's palace) and broke in, meanwhile killing some of the guards. They demanded that the Royal family return to France (to which they soon agreed).
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
A statement adopted by the National Assembly that contained the Revolutionary ideals. It guaranteed citizens equal justice, freedom of speech and freedom of religion.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
This was the slogan adopted by many Revolutionary leaders to keep Revolutionary principles found in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
This was a new Constitution reluctantly agreed to by the King. It established a limited monarchy and stripped the King of much of his power. It established the Legislative Assembly that could create laws and approve or negate declarations of war. The King still had the executive power to enforce laws.
They wanted more reform from the French Revolution and were most often the French shopkeepers and Parisian workers.
A Jacobin editor of a newspaper. He called for the death of many people because they supported the Old Regime.
This declared the King deposed, dissolved the National Assembly and called for a new legislature. This new government body the National Convention took office on September 21. It abolished the monarchy and established a Republic. Adult male citizens could hold office and vote in the new Legislative Assembly (women could not).
A machine that could efficiently behead people for treason against the Revolution. More than 2,100 people were executed in 132 days of the Reign of Terror.
Maximilien Robespierre & Reign of Terror
Wanted to build a 'Republic of virtue' by wiping out all of France's past. He changed the calendar from the Catholic calendar because the Radicals considered religion dangerous. They closed all churches in Paris. In 1793, he became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety. During this period of time, he ruled as a dictator during the time labeled as the Reign of Terror. He protected the Revolution by killing its enemies. He defended these deaths by saying that it allowed French citizens to remain true to the Revolution. He said that there was a connection between fear and virtue.
During the Revolution he was hailed throughout Paris as a military genius. He then overthrew the French directory and became leader of France. He instilled many codes that helped the country and expanded his empire throughout the world. He eventually fell because of his greed for more power and more land, but not after becoming one of the greatest rulers and military geniuses of all time
Napoleon's Coup d'État
In 1799, the Directory had lost most of its political power. In November 1799, his troops surrounded the national legislature and drove out most members. The lawmakers who remained voted to dissolve the directory and establish a group of three consuls. He quickly took position as first consul and assumed the role of a dictator.
These gave the country a uniform set of laws and eliminated many injustices. However, it actually limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights.
Congress of Vienna & European Balance of Power
A series of meetings in 1814-1815 during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon. This caused nationalism to grow, which would eventually spur on revolutions to turn territories into countries; this would all later lead to the World Wars.