Humanities final exam

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Paintings: Artist and Title

...

School of Athens

Artist: Raphael

David

Artist: Michelangelo

The Triumph of Death

Artist: Pieter Bruegel

Lamentation

Artist: Giotto

The Large Turf

Artist: Albrecht Durer

David

Artist: Donatello

Isenheim Alterpiece

Artist: Matthias Grunewald

Garden of Earthly Delights

Artist: Hieronymus Bosch

Giovanni Arnolfini and Wife

Artist: Van Eyck

Venus of Urbino

Artist: Titian

Last Supper

Artist: Leonardo da Vinci

Merode Altarpiece

Artist: Campin

Creation of Adam

Artist: Michelangelo

Primavera

Artist: Botticelli

Tribute Money

Artist: Masaccio

Term definitions

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Hajj

Pilgrimage to Mecca considered religious duty.

Jihad

Religious struggle.

Mihrab

Niche in wall indicating direction towards Mecca.

A capella

Without instrumental accompaniment

Chanson de geste

"Song of heroic deeds" medieval French epic poem.

Gregorian Chant

Monophonic songs, no harmony, sung a capella.

Memento Mori

Remember death.

Primogeniture

Right of eldest son to inherit all property during the middle ages.

Relic

Venerated objects associated with Christianity saint or martyr

Troubadour

Poets from southern France and northern Italy who entertained the courts.

Tympanum

Space filled with sculptural reliefs above the entrance of churches.

Quadrivium

Music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy at a medieval university.

Buon fresco

Method of painting on wet plastered wall.

Flagellant

A penitent who beats himself or herself to atone for sin.

One-point perspective

(linear perspective) Parallel lines appear to converge at a single vanishing point.

Indulgences

Dispensations granted by the Church to shorten a sinner's stay in purgatory.

I'uomo universale

Self-reliant, multitalented, freethinking, individual (Renaissance man/women)

Motet

Form of polyphonic vocal composition.

Polychoral style

Style in which choirs sing against each other in increasingly complicated forms.

Word painting

Effect of musical elements imitating the meaning of the text in mood or action.

a capella

Choral production without musical accompaniment.

Polyptych

An altarpiece constructed from multiple panels.

Madrigal

Secular vocal composition for 3 or more voices.

Chorale

Hymn sung in the vernacular by the entire congregation.

Triptych

Three painted panels hinged together.

Familiarize yourself with central idea

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Chapter 9: The Rise and Spread of Islam

Muslims are followers of Islam and worship in a mosque and practice the 5 Pillars of Islam:
1: Witness- The repetition of the shahadah or "witness," which consists of a single sentence, "There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
2: Prayer- The practice of daily prayer, recited facing Mecca, fives times each day, at dawn, midday, midafternoon, sunset, and nightfall, and the additional requirement for all men to gather for a noon prayer and sermon on Fridays.
3: Alms- The habit of giving alms to the poor and needy, consisting of at least one-fortieth of a Muslim's assets and income.
4: Fasting- During the lunar month of Ramadan the ritual obligation to fast by abstaining from food, drink, medicine, tobacco, and sexual intercourse from sunrise to sundown each day.
5: Pilgrimage- At least once in every Muslim's life, in the twelfth month of the Muslim's calender, the undertaking of a pilgrimage to Mecca.

Chapter 9: The Rise and Spread of Islam

Chronology of world religions: Judaism- Christianity- Islam Archangel Gabriel commanded Mohammad to recite the Qur'an, Similarities to Hebrew Bible (Genesis), New Testament (Jesus and Mary are mentioned, but Jesus is considered prophet, who performed miracles,but is not considered the son of God; Unity of Allah, (Allah the merciful, beneficent).

Chapter 9: The Rise and Spread of Islam

Holly war is lesser struggle; self control is greater struggle.

Chapter 9: The Rise and Spread of Islam

Calligraphy from the Qur'an= highest form of art; Qur'an forbids depiction of humans in art. No images of heaven/hell or human suffering.

Chapter 9: The Rise and Spread of Islam

Islamic art and architecture: Dome of the Rock- Stands atop the temple mount in Jerusalem, on the site where, in Jewish tradition, Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac.
Mosque in Mecca- Traditionally all Muslim's make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lives. Once there, they must walk around the Kaaba seven times.

Chapter 9: The Rise and Spread of Islam

Islamic literature: 1001 nights, concept of a framing tale, Tale of a Fisherman.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

...

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

Manuscript Illustration: Blending of Anglo-Saxon and Christian Traditions. In 601 Gregory sent Augustine a letter urging him not to eliminate pagan traditions overnight, but to incorporate them into Christian practice

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

Book of Kells: Made at Iona in the late eighth century. The basis of the design consists of the Greek letters chi, rho, and iota an abbreviation of Christi. In this instance, the text begins Christi autem generatio, "this is how the birth of Jesus Christ came about," quoting Matthew 1:18.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

Charlemagne statue. Early ninth century. Charlemagne brought one after another pagan tribe to submission, forcing them to give up their brand of Christianity and submit to Rome's Nicene Creed. Charlemagne's kingdom grew to include all of modern-day France, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, almost all of Germany, northern Italy and Corsica, and Navarre, in northern Spain.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

Carolingian Culture: Although England was slow to Christianize, the European continent was not. Christianity was firmly established in 732, at Poitiers, France, just south of Tours in the Loire Valley. The Franks were one of many Germanic tribes like the Angles and Saxons in England that had moved westward. Most of these tribes adopted most of the Christian beliefs of the Roman culture they conquered.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

The Chivalric Code: The chevalier was a knight "young soldier" and he was guided by a strict, though unwritten, code of conduct- courage in battle, loyalty to his lord and peers, and a courtesy verging on reverence toward women.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

The Song of Roland: Roland is brave but selfish and foolish, Oliver is wise. An event that occurred when Charlemagne's rear guard, led by his nephew Roland, Roland's friend Oliver, and other peers, was ambushed by Muslim forces as Charlemagne's army returned from his invasion of Spain. This ambush was over political and propagandistic purposes. The poem embodies the values of feudalism, celebrating courage and loyalty to one's ruler above all else, in this case Roland's loyalty to Charlemagne.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

Medieval Monastery: The monastery was a central part of Carolingian culture, its most important institution.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

Women in Monastic Life: Although the religious life offered women an alternative to life as housewife or worker, life in the convent or nunnery was generally available only to the daughters of aristocrats.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

Hildegard of Bingen, Scite vias domini: Hildegard records her divine revelation.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

William of Normandy, Battle of Hastings illustrated on the Bayeux Tapestry: Half brother of William, Duke of Normandy, whose conquest of England, it narrates in both pictures and words, its story is both historical and biased. The tapestry narrates the Norman point of view, during his stay, Harold recognized William as Edwards heir. The embroidery ends with "and the English turned and fled" as if there is nothing more to say.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

Pilgrimage Churches and Romanesque Architecture: Throughout the Middle Ages, it was customary for Christians to go on religious pilgrimages to holy places or sites. People believed that their prayers for forgiveness, healing, fertility, or anything else would have a better chance of being fulfilled if they were physically closer to a holy object, person, or site. These pilgrimages would also demonstrate the pilgrim's faith.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

Last judgement scenes characteristics and examples: Distinguishes the saved from the damned. Chaotic figures twist and turn in often unpredictable directions. Arrangements of arches. Satan is shown giving out punishments and torture.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

Pope Innocent III's world view expressed in, On the Misery of the Human Condition: Their weaknesses, folly, selfishness, vileness, their crimes, and their sins.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

Crusades: The Pope also presented the Crusades as a Holy War. They had taken to feuding with one another (and with their elder brothers) and raiding other people's land. The Crusades organized these disenfranchised men with the promise of reward, both monetary and spiritual.

Chapter 10: Fiefdom and Monastery, Pilgrimage and Crusade

Lancelot: Centered on the adventures of Lancelot, a knight in the court of the legendary King Arthur of Britain, and focusing particularly on his courtly love- inspired relationship with Guinevere, Arthur's wife, the poem is an example of the medieval romance.

Chapter 11 Asians Centers of Culture

Tang Dynasty "City of Enduring Peace" The Tang Dynasty reestablished a period of peace and prosperity in China. Tang Dynasty the product of the largest and most organized government in the world. Tang restored trade.

Chapter 11 Asians Centers of Culture

Tang Poetry: Self-examination, colloquial speech, and a frank celebration of their own sensuality were some characteristics used in these poems.

Chapter 11 Asians Centers of Culture

Song Dynasty: City of Heaven" period of tremendous prosperity; printing press enabled transmission of knowledge
Confucianism , Daoism and Buddhism: well run society mirrored unchanging moral order of cosmos
Yuan Dynasty: controlled by Mongols until Zhu Yuanshang declared himself first emperor of new Ming dynasty

Chapter 11 Asians Centers of Culture

Buddhist and Hindu Art and Architecture: Buddhist- The artistic expressions of this faith were rolled up cloth paintings, known as thangkas. As monks traveled from one monastery to another, they would unroll thangkas as aids to instruction. Painted on these thangkas were images representing Buddhist figures of authority.
Hindu- Their religion and art are infused with a deep respect for sexuality, evident even in the architecture.

Chapter 12 Age of Inquiry: Faith and Knowledge

Gothic Architecture:many cathedrals dedicated to the Virgin Mary (Notre Dame= French for 'our lady')
characteristics of Gothic architecture:stained glass windows, rib vaulting, flying buttresses, gargoyles, emphasis on verticality.
Examples of Gothic Architecture- Chartres, Belle Verriere, Notre Dame, Sainte Chappelle.

Chapter 12 Age of Inquiry: Faith and Knowledge

Rise of University, (Bologna, Paris, Oxford and Cambridge)
Quadrivium- Mathematical arts.
Heloise and Abelard: Peter Abelard a brilliant logician and author, he taught by the dialectical method which is presenting different points of view and seeking to reconcile them. Abelard pursued a love affair with Heloise a private student of his.
The Romance of the Rose: The relationship of Heloise and Abelard would be celebrated in what is undoubtedly the most extensive illuminated and popular vernacular poem of the age. The book is a dream vision of a 25 year old narrator.

Chapter 12 Age of Inquiry: Faith and Knowledge

Education of Women: Women were not allowed to study at the university. There were some exceptions, particularly in Italy.

Chapter 12 Age of Inquiry: Faith and Knowledge

Thomas Aquinas and Scholasticism: Dedicated to the study of theology. Their brand of theological inquiry, which was based on Abelard's dialectic method, was called Scholasticism. Aquinas's Summa Theologica was something Aquinas set out to write a theology based entirely on the work of ancient philosophers, demonstrating the compatibility of classical philosophy and Christian religion.

Chapter 12 Age of Inquiry: Faith and Knowledge

Mendicant Orders: Dominicans, followers of Thomas Aquinas Franciscans, followers of Francis of Assisi; Canticle of the Sun.

Chapter 13 The Fourteenth Century

From stylized Byzantine art to growing Naturalism: Duccio, Simone Martini, Cimabue and Giotto, bridge to Renaissance
Vernacular (language of the local people)
Symbolic use of terza rima, (focus on number 3 representing the Trinity)
Effect of Black Death, Death is seen as the great equalizer, Dance of Death

Chapter 14 Early Renaissance (started in Florence)

15th century Florence; Concept of Humanist and l'uomo universale; influence of the Medici Family in Florence
Baptistery Door competition of 1401, Gates of Paradise; Ghiberti's and Brunelleschi's accomplishments;
Definitions of Scientific, one-point (linear perspective) and atmospheric perspective;
contributions of Masaccio

Chapter 14 Early Renaissance (started in Florence)

-Donatello's David (First free standing nude since Classical age)
-Botticelli works mixing contemporary settings/figures with biblical scenes; use of mythology as subject.

Chapter 14 Early Renaissance (started in Florence)

Leonardo's works: Last Supper- Ludovico Sforza the man who rushed Leonardo to finish the Last Supper. Mona Lisa- Leonardo uses sfumato a technique that fuses his subject with the landscape behind her by means of light.

Chapter 15 High Renaissance (continued in Rome and Venice)

Rome: Power of papacy and Cardinals.
-symbolic gestures of Plato and Aristotle (focus on ideas vs focus on action)
-Machiavelli's idea of the ideal prince more important to be feared than loved
-Characteristics of Venetian art: sensuality, eroticism and emphasis on color

Chapter 15 High Renaissance (continued in Rome and Venice)

Education and role of women: They received a humanist education, they possessed the knowledge of French and Latin, the ability to write in their native language. They were expected to be good musicians and dancers.

Chapter 16: The Renaissance of the North

Merode Altarpiece: A three part work, or triptych. Oil Painting.
-Bosch's Garden of Earthly Delights: Full of strange hybrid organisms. Three part artwork, left is heaven, center is life on earth, and right is a vision of hell.
-Grunewald's Isenheim Altarpiece: Christ's flesh ripped and torn by thorns, more startlingly realistic in its detail than any Crucifixion ever painted in the south.
-Durer's works: waters, colors, etching and woodcuts.

Chapter 17 The Protestant Reformation

-Martin Luther's Reformation followed his conscience; did not want to break away, wanted to reform the church 95pg Theses emphasis on faith, God's grace, scripture.
-Called for rejection of: relics, indulgences, focus on saints, infallibility of Pope.
-Also wrote many chorales used in church services
-Spread of the Reformation: Muntzer and the Peasant War. Muntzer differed from Luther theologically in that he saw Luther's faith as based on Scripture whereas Muntzer believed that God sopke spiritually ton every individual with faith, and that God's word came in visions and dreams.
-Zwingli: each canton in Switzerland could choose its own religion.
-Calvin: elect and damned are predestined; encouraged to lead pure lives; anti-semitism.
-Secular Art: Landscapes, Still Lifes.
-Impact of Gutenberg Printing Press: 42 line Bible; Tyndale translated Bible; was strangled, burned at stake.

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