Election of 1960
*Nixon (R), ex VP vs. Kennedy (D)
*Kennedy won because he looked really good and confident (with practice) in first TV debate, but Nixon looked old and nervous.
*Kennedy won because of his pro civil rights policy, but Nixon defended Eisenhower.
*Teamster/truckers threw pro Nixon ballots out (Kennedys paid them a lot)
*Kennedy won by less than 100,000 votes (didn't have popular vote/mandate)
*First Catholic (would Pope influence him?)
*Inexperienced (only 43 and Senator of Mass.)
*Spoiled rich kid?
*WWII hero, saved several people as captain of a boat.
* charismatic, attractive, confident
*Experienced (Eisenhower VP 8 years, led HUAC, was in congress)
JFK and Nixon
*against communism (domino theory)
*solution for the economy problem
*Tried to pass civil rights bill, failed in congress (didn't do much in S. to avoid rocking the boat)
*Read about poverty and concerned about helping them. Concerned about poverty.
*Concerned for the women of America who didn't earn as much as men for the same work.
**Couldn't do much w/o mandate.
*Space policy really successful and popular ( got man on moon in 10 yrs).
Bay of Pigs (1961)
*A failed American attempt started by Eisenhower to overthrow the newly established communist government in Cuba (Castro)
CIA trained and sent Cuban rebels to the bay to start a coup. NY Times leaked info to public and Castro was prepared.
*US air support also failed.
*JFK took blame, CIA angry at JFK (was he really too young)
*Caused Castro to plead for Soviet aid (Cuban Missile Crisis)
* Khrushchev thought US might try to over throw Soviet Communism too and wanted US out of Germany
*US announced they'd be able to survive nuke attack
* Khrushchev built a wall to keep Germans in
*Kennedy used the wall as propaganda to say commis were scared
Cuban Missile Crisis (Oct 1962)
*Russians had missiles and built silos in Cuba
*US quarantined(diseased) Cuba because a blockade would be an act of war.
*Soviet ambassador speechless and caught red handed with nukes in Cuba.
*Svoiet ship turned around at the last minute.
*Kennedy got respect for handling problem well.
*US promised never to overthrow the government of Castro and the Soviet Union said they would take the silos down and both sides honored the agreement.
*Got lots of threats, warned not to go to Dallas
*Arrives in Dallas with loving crowd in open car.
*Abraham Zapruder takes pictures and filmed the death shot in head and neck
*Oswald didn't have enough accuracy to kill JFK himself (govt conspiracy!)
*Governor was also shot in the front seat.
Lee Harvey Oswald
*Shot JFK from top of warehouse, ran to theater and caught
*killed by Jack Ruby while being moved to safer prison
*Shot Oswald on his way to safer prison
*LBJ set up 9 month committee that investigated the assassination of President Kennedy
*Led by chief justice Earl Warren
*Decided no conspiracy, one gunman was Oswald
*PHD from Harvard, grew up in the N.
*Not exposed to slavery.
*More assertive.(blacks shouldn't sit quietly and wait).
*Founded the NAACP:
*Law suits. If the laws say separate but equal, they must enforce EQUAL facilities.
*Demand an end to segregation.
*Desire to eradicate poverty and make the US a totally equal country.
*Herrington's The Other America made people in realize the amount of poverty (esp among elderly)
*Similar to Roosevelt's plan
*Federal funding for poor kids to go to pre school
*Leveled te playing field when kids got older
*Part time jobs for kids
*Employers worked with schools so kids could learn and work
*domestic version of the Peace Corps that provided help to poor communities in the United States in the 1960s
*Federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
*Federal program that provides low-cost health insurance to poor Americans of any age
Immigration Act of 1965
*Ended quotas based on national origin
*Occupation and skills are now the criteria used to judge entry into the US
*Preference given to those w/ relatives in the US
* Supported urban renewal
*Rid of ugly landscape
Civil Rights Bill of 1964
*outlawed unequal use of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at work and by facilities that served the general public
*Result of Birmingham
Voting Rights Act of 1965
*Law banned literacy tests, poll taxes, and other laws that kept African Americans from registering to vote
*Civil Rights activists who rode on buses throughout the south to end segregation
*parts CORE and SNCC
*"Bombingham/project confrontation" -MLK
*most segregated city in '63
*MLK wants TV attention
*MLK knows Bull Connor will be rash/harsh
*Criticized by church and jailed
*College kids do the march
*Bull Connor sends dogs to get rid of kids
*People feel bad for blacks
March on Washington (1963)
*Show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress.
*MLK gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech
* 250,000 people attended the rally
*Southern Christian Leadership Conference
*Churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement
* Blacks and whites
*Led by MLK Jr (civil disobedience)
*Congress of Racial of Equality
*group that planned the Freedom Rides to desegregate interstate buses
*non violent protests
*Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
* college kids participate in Civil Rights
*stage sit-ins and such
*Use to be part of Nation of Islam, thought it was hypocritical and dropped
*Stressed black pride, power, and separtism
*No integration, separate but equal is good!
*We don't need whites
*No violence really
*a 1954 peace agreement
*divided Vietnam at 17 parallel into communist-controlled North Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh) and non-communist South(Ngo Diem ) Vietnam until unification elections could be held in 1956.
* anti-communist south vietnam president
*canceled elections that were suppopsed to unify Vietnam
*Catholic persecuted majority Buddhists in S.
*assassinated in a coup
*Southeast Treaty Organization
*Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand
*Asian alliance set up the help support the anti-communist regime in South Vietnam
Gulf of Tonkin
*LBJ incorrectly claimed that N Vietnamese forces had twice attacked American destroyers in the Gulf
*Congress gave him almost full resources for war
North Vietnamese army and the Viet Kong launched a *Sophisticated offensive attack on military bases and cities in the south by N> Viets and VC.
*After 3 weeks, the power was restored to these posts.
*Turning point in the war, public started disliking the war
LBJ Vietnam War
*Bombed a lot
*guerrilla soldiers of the Communist faction in S. Vietnam,
*also know as the National Liberation Front
Operation Rolling Thunder
*Sustained bombing campaign against North Vietnam
*carpet bombing, agent orange, and Napalm
*Bombed Cambodia/Laos to break Ho Chi Minh trail
Free Speech Movement
*Started at UC Berkeley when they did not let reform groups recruit on campus
*6000 students rebelled & overtook administration building, admin joined
*College is where students are exposd to new things, not sheltered from the world
*Movement spread across the nation
My Lai Massacre
*Mass killing of helpless inhabitants of a village in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War
*Carried out in 1968 by United States troops under the command of Lieutenant William Calley
*Troops told there were VC in the village
*Nixon's strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war
*Trained S. Vietnamese to gradually withdraw American troops forces
*White middle-class youths, called hippies.
*New Left, against Vietnam War
*Believed in a society based on peace and love, rock'n'roll, colorful clothes, and the use of drugs, lived in large groups.
*Students tried to put a bomb in the ROTC building where they train potential millitary officers
*Governor James Rhodes sent 3000 national guardsmen
*4 kids shot dead
*Daniel Ellsberg leaked Pentagon papers to Washington Post (anti Nixon)
*Government was lying about the body count of the Vietnamese that were killed
*1971 people say enough is enough