FCS 1233- Final Exam

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Chapters 7, 8, 9, 13,14,15,16

Basal metabolism is the energy expended

when resting, but awake, and in a fasting state.

Which of the following is true about basal metabolism?

it represents about 60-70 percent of total kcaolires used by a sedentary person during a day

Which of the following is not associated with an increase in basal metabolism?

A low kcalorie intake

Carol eats 800 kcalories a day to lose weight. She is 40 years old. Carol has been walking briskly 60 minutes daily for the past 2 months. In her younger days she lifted weights, but she has lost considerable lean body mass over the years because of inactivity. Recently, Carol was diagnosed with hypothyroidism, which lowers metabolism. Which of the following factors increases Carol's energy output and promotes weight loss?

Her walking routine

All of the following contribute to total energy expenditure except

energy content of food.

Physical activity

includes daily activities as seemingly insignificant as fidgeting.

The thermic effect of food

represents the Kcalories needed to digest, absorb, and process ingested food.

All of the following are true about contributors to energy expenditure except

fidgeting accounts for 40 percent of total energy expenditure.

The kcalorie cost of the thermic effect of food is ___ of energy consumed.

5%-10%

Bill expends 2,500 kcalories per day. What amount of kcalories will be from basal metabolism?

1,500 to 1,750

Bill consumes 2,500 kcalories per day. What would be his energy expenditure, in kcalories, from the thermic effect of food?

125-250

Thermogenesis refers to all of the following except

the energy you require during sleep at night

Which of the following is true about obesity in North America?

Sixty-five percent of adults are overweight and, of these, 45% of adults are obese

The method for determining energy expenditure in which the amount of oxygen a person uses is measured is called

oxygen

What is usually the major factor that explains variability in the energy needs of two healthy men of similar age and size?

physical activity

The MyPyramid calorie guideline for a 19- to 30-year-old active woman is

2400

Xenical is a weight loss drug that works in the digestive system

to block digestion of about one-third of the fat in the food we eat.

When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for men warrants an obesity diagnosis.

24%

When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for women warrants an obesity diagnosis.

35%

Body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields

the body mass index.

For a woman who is 1.63 meters tall and weighs 72 kilograms, the body mass index would be

27

How would you interpret the body mass index for a woman who is 1.63 meters tall and weighs 72 kilograms?

She slightly exceeds the value for which health risks begin.

A major problem with a very low-fat diet is

dieters become bored and are not satisfied

Which of the following is not a way to estimate body fat?

Body mass index

Android obesity is associated with a higher incidence of all the following except

cancer

Which of the following is not true about android obesity?

A low waist-to-hip ratio is indicative of it.

All of the following statements about many popular diets are true except

they help people make permanent changes in eating habits.

Margaret's parents are both obese. She has dieted six times, each time losing a considerable amount of weight and subsequently regaining it. Margaret has an aversion to exercise. Which of the following is true about Margaret's situation?

When she ends the diet she regains additional body fat.

Orlistat (Xenical) is a medication approved by the FDA for weight loss that reduces fat

digestion by inhibiting lipase enzyme action in the small intestine.

Which of the following is not a major goal for weight control programs?

5 pound weight loss per week

Mary Sue wishes to lose 5 pounds before her vacation in approximately 5 weeks. Her average consumption is 2,100 kcalories. How many kcalories should she consume daily to lose this weight, assuming her activity pattern remains unchanged?

1,600-1,700

A daily deficit of 500 kcalories should result in a weight loss of about how many pounds per week?

1

What would be the approximate weight gain, in pounds, of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month?

4

A weight loss program should have all of the following characteristics except

the plan should have a weight loss goal of 3 to 5 pounds per week.

As one finds his or her weight loss slowing during a weight control program, the best practice is to

increase physical activity.

Which of the following is an important aspect of behavior modification used for weight control?

Recording eating behavior to identify situations that contribute to overeating

Altering the environment to minimize the stimuli for eating is called

stimulus control.

An example of cognitive restructuring for weight control is

replacing eating reactions to stress with helpful relaxing alternatives.

Currently, the most common and effective surgical procedure for morbid obesity is

gastric bypass.

The best way to treat an underweight person is to advise him or her to

eat kcalorie-dense foods higher in vegetable fat like nuts and seeds.

Which of the following is not characteristic of a fad diet?

They help people make permanent changes in eating habits

Which of the following is true about fat?

It is a concentrated source of kcalories.

The body's set point has been suggested to be

a weight to which the body closely regulates.

Which of the following is true about use of diet pills for weight reduction?

Diet pills do not lead to long-term changes in weight and tend to have side effects.

When individuals lose weight quickly, most of the weight lost is from

?

Martha is maintaining her current weight by eating 2,500 kcalories per day. To lose 1 pound of fat per week, she would have to decrease her intake to how many kcalories per day?

1,900-2,000

Changing one's frame of mind related to weight control and nutrition is called

cognitive restructuring.

Two self-help groups that would be helpful with weight control efforts include

Weight Watchers and Take Off Pounds Sensibly.

A woman who consumes 1800 nutrient-dense kcals per day and expends 2300 kcals per day with the help of moderate physical activity

is in negative energy balance

A significant health risk from obesity is

Type 2 diabetes

What percentage of a day's total energy need is used for digesting, absorbing, transporting, and storing nutrients?

5% to 10%

A reliable approach for weight loss is to

reduce daily calorie intake and increase energy expenditure

Eating a low-fat diet for weight control is impractical. T/F

F

Daily food choices rich in dietary fiber contribute to weight control. T/F

T

The energy required to keep the resting body alive represents basal metabolism. T/F

T

Health problems related to obesity begin when a person's body mass index (BMI) exceeds 30 kg/m2. T/F

T

The major cause of obesity in North America is low thyroid gland activity. T/F

F

Rapid weight loss likely contributes to the loss of considerable muscle tissue. T/F

T

You can lose 1 pound of stored fat each week by expending 200 kcals per day beyond your normal energy output T/F

F

The energy required to keep the resting body alive represents basal metabolism T/F

T

Which statement about vitamins is true?

Help regulate chemical reactions in the body

Which of the following is true about the intake of vitamins?

Occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm.

Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?

Water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic.

If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be

a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran.

Which of the following is true about the regulation of the production and sale of vitamin and mineral supplements?

The FDA does not regulate all vitamin and mineral supplements closely.

Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins?

After absorption, they are transported in the bloodstream to body cells and/or stored in the liver and fatty tissue.

Which fat soluble vitamins are most toxic if consumed in excess amounts over long periods of time?

Vitamins A & D

Which of the following does not describe fat-soluble vitamins?

Excesses are excreted in the urine

Which of the following is true about the forms of vitamin A?

Carotenoids can be converted to retinoids.

Most vitamin A is stored in the

liver

Drying of the cornea due to vitamin A deficiency is called

xerophthalmia

Which fat-soluble vitamin is important for the health of epithelial cells because it promotes mucus production?

A

Which of the following is the best source of preformed vitamin A?

liver

George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following foods should he choose?

Spinach

Which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body?

Carotenoids

This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida.

Folate/folic acid

All of the following are true about the toxicity of vitamin A except

one can experience toxic effects from consuming too much beta-carotene.

The nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because

it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun.

All of the following are characteristic of vitamin D except

the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun

Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of

Vitamin D

The childhood disease rickets is due to a _______ deficiency.

Vitamin D

The most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet is

fortified milk.

Vitamin E functions as a(n)

antioxidant

Which of the following serves as an antioxidant in cell membranes, protecting them and DNA inside cells, from damage?

Vitamin E

A rich source of vitamin E is

corn oil.

The nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is vitamin

K

In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the

kidneys

All of the following are true of B vitamins except

Stored in the liver

The B vitamins generally function as

antioxidants

The vitamin that functions as a coenzyme, particularly in carbohydrate metabolism, is

thiamin

Thiamin is distributed in small amounts in many foods. A nutrient-dense source of thiamin is

pork.

What disease is caused by a thiamin deficiency?

Beriberi

The foods that provide the largest source of riboflavin in the American diet are

milk and dairy products.

Niacin is necessary to prevent the disease

pellagra.

Bill's physician has prescribed an intake of 200 milligrams nicotinic acid (a form of niacin) to attempt to preserve his health. Which of the following is true about nicotinic acid consumption?

It can lower elevated serum cholesterol.

The vitamin that aids in activating fatty acids so they can yield energy is

pantothenic acid

A pantothenic acid deficiency

is very unlikely because of its widespread availability.

Intestinal bacteria can make this B vitamin in adequate amounts to meet human needs.

biotin

Which B-vitamin is required for amino acid metabolism?

Vitamin B

The best vitamin B6 food sources include

meat,fish, poultry

Vitamins involved in red blood cell synthesis are

vitamin B12 and folate.

Which of the following is NOT a good source of vitamin D?

fruits and vegetables

Generally, good folate sources are

green leafy vegetables.

Acquiring sufficient vitamin B12 from the diet may be a problem to vegans because

it is only found in animal products.

If a supplement label includes a structure/function claim, it also must include

the FDA warning that these claims have not been evaluated by the agency.

Formation and maintenance of collagen requires

vitamin C

Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of

Vitamin C

Which of the following is an antioxidant?

Vitamin C

The first option in ensuring an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals is

a healthy diet rich in vitamins and minerals.

The best sources of carotenoids include

pumpkin, carrots, squash, sweet potatoes, and apricots.

The vitamin that prevents beriberi is

thiamin

Megadoses are defined as vitamin intake ________ times the estimated human need to prevent a deficiency.

2-10

Beta-carotene is an important precursor of vitamin D. T/F

F

Older people who exhibit anemia may have a vitamin B-12 deficiency. T/F

T

"Let the Upper Level be your guide" suggests that any supplement use should at least exceed the upper level set for the nutrient. T/F

F

Because numerous studies support the efficacy of vitamin E supplementation, health experts routinely recommend supplements of 200 milligrams (400 IU) per day. T/F

F

Some segments of the population especially benefit from routine use of a vitamin and mineral supplement. T/F

T

Intakes as little as three times needs for vitamin A may be toxic, especially in early pregnancy. T/F

T

Fat-soluble vitamins are generally lost more easily in cooking than are the water-soluble vitamins T/F

F

Water constitutes ______ percent of body weight.

50-70

In women, bone loss begins around age

30

Intracellular water volume depends primarily on the concentration of

phosphate and potassium.

The two most significant extracellular ions are

sodium and chloride.

Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via

evaporation

The most effective treatment for preventing bone loss in those at risk for osteoporosis is

adequate bone building nutrients.

Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?

5 cups

Which of the following is not true about the regulation of fluid in the body?

Thirst is a reliable indicator of how much water should be consumed to replenish body fluids.

The Beverage Guidance System recommends that fluids should provide ______ of total calories consumed.

less than 10%

Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above ____ mm Hg.

140/90

Minerals are classified in which way?

Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less.

Which of the following statements does not describe the role of minerals in the body?

They provide 4 kcalories per gram.

Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?

minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants

The typical American diet contains approximately ___ mgs of sodium.

2,300 to 4,700

Adult women need how much total water intake per day?

2.7 liters

Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will

increase urinary excretion of sodium

Which of the following would have the most sodium?

A prepared apple pie with filling from a can, bought in the store

Potassium performs all the following functions except which one?

It maintains the ability to see at night.

Lowering blood pressure is associated with which of the following minerals?

Potassium

The AI for sodium for those under 51 years of age is

1500 mg/day.

A severe iodide deficiency during early pregnancy may result in an infant afflicted with

cretinism

Potassium is found in the largest quantities in

fruits and vegetables.

The major chloride source in the diet is

salt

In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in

bones and teeth.

Which of the following is not a function of calcium?

Appetite regulation

Oxalic acid can inhibit the absorption of

calcium

The most nutrient-dense calcium food source is

milk and dairy products.

Which would you expect to furnish the largest amount of calcium?

1 ounce of cheese

According to the RDA, the mineral that you need in the largest amount is

calcium

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