World Religion Final Exam

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Cumulative Final

agnosticism

The position that holds that the existence of God cannot be proven.

animism

A worldview common among oral religions (religions with no written scriptures) that sees all elements of nature as being filled with spirit or spirits

atheism

The position that holds that there is no God or gods.

deconstruction

A technique, pioneered by Jacques Derrida, that sets aside ordinary categories of analysis and makes us, instead, of unexpected perspectives on cultural elements; it can be used for finding hidden values in text, film, art work, cultural practice, or religious phenomenon.

dualism

The belief that reality is made of two different principles (spirit and matter); the belief in two gods (good and evil) in conflict

immanent

Existing and operating within nature.

monotheism

The belief in one God.

nontheism

A position unconcerned with the supernatural, not asserting or denying the existence of any deity

pantheism

The belief that everything in the universe is divine.

polytheism

The belief in any Gods.

post-structuralism

Approach rejecting the search for universal structures and focused on individual elements in cultural phenomena.

structuralism

Looks for universal structures underlying language, religion, mythology and other human activities.

transcendent

Not limited by the physical world.

The Theologian

Who studies God?

The Literary Critic

Who studies sacred text?

The Historian

Who studies the facts within the larger context of history?

The Anthropologist

Who studies religion as a part of human culture?

The Sociologist

Who studies the way religion interacts with other dimensions of our social experience?

The Psychologist

Who explores the psychological dimensions of religious phenomena?

The Philosopher

Who reflects on the logic meaning and truth value of religious stories and beliefs?

The Pheneomenologist

Who merely describes, without trying to explain, interpret or judge religion?

Self Test Questions

Pay Close Attention

Ritual

Beliefs enacted and made real through ceremonies, certain objects or specialized locations or buildings define the characteristic of

Carol Gustav Jung

Which of the following is a Swiss psychologist who described religion as something that grew out of the individuals need to arrive at personal fulfilment, which he called individuation?

James Frazer

____is the Scottish anthropologist and author of "The Golden Bough" who saw the origins of religion in early attempts by human beings to influence nature and who identified religion as an intermediate stage between magic and science.

Immanent

A power existing and operating within nature's said to be

Dualism

Which of the following is the belief that reality is made of two different principles (Spirit and Matter); or the belief in two Gods (good and evil) in conflict?

God

One familiar term for the sacred reality, particularly in the Western World is

Philosophy

Which of the following is a common approach to religion that stresses following reason rather than religious authority and tries to fit answers into systematic whole?

Reconnecting

The world religion is usually interpreted by scholars to mean.

Nontheism

____does not assert or deny the existence of any deity and is unconcerned with the supernatural

E.B. Tylor

Which of the following is the 19th century and 20th century English anthropologist who saw religion as being rooted in worship of ancestors and nature spirits?

Point to some structure

Many scholars, especially between the late 19th century through the mid 20th centuries, or had that religious symbols

Sigmund Freud

___is the founder of the psychoanalysis who theorized that belief in a God or gods arose from an adults projection of powerful and long lasting childhood experiences with his or her parents

Emile Durkham

The French sociologists who argued that religious behavior is relative to the society in which it is found, and that a society will often use a religion to reinforce its own values, is

Ontology

The branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature of reality is called ____

Transcendent

___means not limited by the physical world

Admit many types if beliefs and practices and stress social harmony

Religions that are inclusive frequently, (Hint:Christianity) Not an inclusive religion

Agnosticism

The position that holds that the existence of a God cannot be proven is

Animism

A word view common among indigenous religions that see all elements of nature as being filled with spirit or spirits is

world view

A synonym for a belief system is__ implies several beliefs fitting together into a fairly complete and systematic interpretation of the universe and harmony's place in it

symbol

A (n)___ is something fairly concrete and ordinary that can represent and help human beings intensely experience something of greater complexity

ahimsa

The term meaning non-harm or nonviolence.

ashram

A spiritual community.

Atman

The spiritual essence of all individual human beings.

avatar

An earthly embodiment of a deity.

Bhagavad Gita

A spiritual classic in Hinduism that is a conversation between Arjuna and Krishna preserved in the Mahabharata.

bhakti yoga

The spiritual discipline of devotion to a deity or guru.

bhakti

Devotion to a deity or guru.

Brahma

God of creation.

Brahman

The spiritual essence of the universe.

brahmin

Member of the priestly caste in Hinduism.

caste

One of the major social classes sanctioned by Hinduism.

Devi

"Goddess"; the Divine Feminine, also called the Great Mother.

dhyana

Meditation or the experience of the mind focused only on the object of concentration.

Durga

"Awe-inspiring,""distant"; a goddess that is a form of Devi.

guru

Spiritual leader.

hatha yoga

The spiritual discipline of postures and bodily exercises.

jnana yoga

The spiritual discipline of knowledge and insight.

Kali

A form of Devi; a goddess associated with destruction and rebirth.

karma yoga

The spiritual discipline of selfless action.

karma

The moral law of cause and effect that determines the direction of rebirth.

Krishna

A god associated with divine playfulness; a form of Vishnu.

kundalini yoga

The spiritual discipline of moving energy up through the chakras.

mantra

A short sacred phrase, often chanted or used in meditation.

maya

"Illusion."

moksha

"Liberation" from personal limitation, egotism, and rebirth.

puja

Offerings and ritual in honor of deity.

raja yoga

The "royal" discipline of meditation.

Rama

A god and mythical king; a form of Vishnu.

samadhi

A state of complete inner peace resulting from meditation.

samsara

The everyday world of change and suffering, leading to rebirth.

sannyasin

A wandering holy man.

Shiva

A god associated with destruction and rebirth.

Trimurti

"Three forms" of the divine; the three gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva.

Upanishads

Written meditations on the spiritual essence of the universe and the self.

Vedas

Four collections of ancient prayers and rituals included in Hindu sacred scripture.

Vishnu

A god associated with preservation and love.

yoga

A spiritual discipline; a method for perfecting one's union with the divine.

anatman

"no-atman" or "non-self"; rejection of Hindu concept of atman, or an essential, unchanging interior entity at the center of a person

Amitabha/Amida

the name of a Buddha who created a Pure Land doctrine and practice that featured chanting his name

arhat

an enlightened disciple of the Buddha

bhikkhuni

Buddhist nuns

Bodh Gaya

temple built at the site where the Buddha was enlightened under the bodhi tree

bodihisattva

Mahayana Buddhism's model Buddhist will not attain final Nirvana until all beings are enlightened

Buddha nature theory

a Mahayana school that said if nirvana and samsara cannot be separated, then nirvana must interpenetrate all reality, therefore all beings have a portion of nirvana and so possess the latent potential for its realization

caitya

a stupa or any Buddhist shrine

dana

the first stage in punya, a merit-making donation, "dana" means "self-less giving" to diminish desire

dependent origination

Buddhist doctrine that views reality as an ongoing, impermanent, and interdependent flux in the form of a circle divided into 12 parts

Dharma

the teachings of the Buddha

Eightfold Path

comprises eight ways of thinking and acting that can be categorized as morality, meditation, and wisdom

"engaged Buddhism"

a movement started by Thich Nhat Hanh that asserts that when faced with the inevitable suffering in the world, Buddhists must take action and engage their society

enlightenment

the elimination of ignorance, which completely clears the mind to see reality as it truly is

Four Good Deeds

a doctrinal statement that provides guidance for how to live, aimed at the laity

Four Noble Truths

a diagnosis of the human condition and a prescription for liberation, which involves following the Eightfold Path

koan

a paradoxical word problem given to disciples that can lead to small awakenings or nirvana

Lotus Sutra

popular Buddhist scripture in East Asia, develops the Mahayana doctrine of cosmic Buddhahood

Madhyamaka

deconstructive philosophically based school of thought founded by Nagarjuna

Mahayana

name given to the Great Vehicle division when the sangha aligned under two main divisions after the death of the Buddha

mizuko cult

Japanese cult organized to seek the forgiveness of the spirits of aborted fetuses, from Kannon devotionalism

nirvana

the final state of liberation

Pali Canon

the only complete version of the Buddha's teachings, recited and corrected at the Fifth Buddhist Council in 1871

prajna

insight or wisdom - the full development of prajna is essential to salvation

"Protestant Buddhism"

modern reformation of Buddhist tradition begun in colonial Ceylon

punya

the merit system for measuring spiritual advancement

PureLand

a form of Mahayana Buddhism founded in India but spreading more widely to China and then Japan; it promoted deferring enlightenment-seeking from the human state until rebirth in a heaven; must rely on "other power" of celestial Buddhas to reach nirvana

sangha

Buddhist monastic community

shramana

a person who pursues ascetic practices in seeking enlightenment

skandha

the five aggregates making up a human being

stupa

relic mound shrines, eight of which contain ashes of the Buddha

Theravada

name given to the elder traditionalists, or Sthaviravadins, when the sangha aligned under two main divisions after the death of the Buddha

Three Marks of Existence

suffering, impermanence, and non-self

Three Refuges

a recitation used to mark conversion to Buddhism, to affirm one's devotion, or to start Buddhist rituals; the Buddha, the Dharma, and the sangha

Thunder Vehicle

a branch of Mahayana Buddhism, also called tantra; emphasized realizing salvation fast and in this lifetime

Vajrayana

another name for the Thunderbolt Vehicle branch of Mahayana Buddhism

vipassana meditation

a form of meditation emphasized by the Theravada school

Zen

formed as Ch'an in China; reaching nirvana is an individual effort; stresses meditation as the means

SELF TEST

PAY CLOSE ATTENTION

China

By the year 100 CE, Buddhism had an entered ____ through Central Asia on the silk routes.

Mahayana

The earliest and strongest Euro-American contact with Buddhism in the early 20th century was with the __ branch of Buddhism.

Dalai Lama

The most recognized Buddhist in the world today and a Noble Peace Prize winner is the 14th __

Theravada and Mahayana

The first two main divisions of Buddhism were:

Seven weeks

How long did the Buddha remain under the bodhi tree experiencing nirvana?

A hungry child

The "four passing sights" Siddhartha encountered did NOT include

Meditation

Zen is derived from a word referring to one of the steps in the Eightfold Path, whose meaning is

About forty years

For how long did the Buddha teach after he discovered nirvana?

Sangha

The new institution that the Buddha created in India was the

Only some people suffer

Which one of the following is NOT one of the Four Noble Truths?

Arhats

The enlightened disciples of the Buddha in the Theravada tradition were called?

Dukkha

____refers to sorrow, suffering, or misery.

Lama

A__is Tibetan Buddhist teacher, often a monk.

Stupa

A__is ashrine, usually in the shape of a dome, used to mark Buddhist relics of sacred sites.

Is to still desire and dispel ignorance

The most desirable effect of meditating on the three characteristics of existential reality is

Oldest

How does Buddhism compare to the other missionary religions?

India

The Dalai Lama's government lives in exile in the country of

An extensive migration of Tibetan Buddhists teachers into almost almost every country in the world.

Some "good" to come out of the exile and persecution of the Tibetan Buddhists by the Chinese government has been

Meditation techniques

The amazing global diffusion of Buddhism after WWII was because Westerners were drawn to Buddhisms

Dependent origination

The Buddhist doctrine that view reality as an ongoing, impermanent, and interdependent flux in the form of a circle is called

Sri Lanka

In the holy land of South Asia where the Buddha was born, enlightened, and died, in which country has Buddhism remained strong?

Anatman, nonself

The unique Buddhist concept of __ says that there is no essential, unchanging interior entity at the center of a person.

Lotus Sutra

One of the most popular Mahayana Buddhist scriptures in East Asia and the one that shifts the religious ideal from the arhat to the Bodhisattva is called the __

Vajrayana, tantric

In the Himalayan region, it was __ Buddhism that found supremacy

Bhutan

__is the world's only nation, at the present time, that has Tibetan Buddhism asits state religion.

Nirvana

The state of __ means freedom and existence in an eternal state beyond all material description.

Insight/wisdom

The word "prajna" refers to

Zen

The Bodhidharma is the religious ideal as set forth in which form of Buddhism

Ashoka

Buddhists have a history of using the legend of which king to define their exemplary relationship with rulers as protectors and patrons?

Thich Nhat Hanh

The name most associated with "engaged Buddhism" is

A common reverence for the 3 refugees

While Buddhism has never been a unified religion either doctrinally or institutionally; one unifying element in the early days when the various schools were being found was.

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