Theories of Personality Ch. 8

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The original researchers of achievement motivation were not interested in all kinds of achievement. They specifically were interested in

entrepreneurial behavior.

The opportunity to receive concrete ____ for their performances is important to people high in need for Achievement.

feedback

Which of the following is indicative of high need for Achievement?

A student who is motivated to avoid failure on an exam.

Good advice for parents who want to raise their children to have a high need for Achievement is to

find a balance between encouragement and robbing the child of initiative.

Because scores on self-report inventories often do not correspond to scores on the TAT, some researchers have made a distinction between

implicit motives and self-attributed motives.

With respect to gender, nearly all of the early research in achievement motivation was conducted on

males

Which of the following is true about gender and achievement?

Men and women differ in the way they define success.

According to the _______ approach to achievement motivation, we often ask ourselves why we have done as well as we have.

attribution

Which of the following is not a dimension of attributions?

reliability

In terms of specific achievement goals, mastery goals are

concerned with developing competency in various tasks.

Which of the following students would perform best in a college class?

Students instructed by teachers who emphasize mastery of skills.

Research on Type A behavior began as

a medical concept and later came under the study of academic researchers.

Jerry and George work for an advertising agency in Chicago. Their employer has labeled Jerry as a Type A personality and George a Type B. Which of the following is a likely difference between Jerry and George?

Jerry does not procrastinate as often as George.

According to laboratory experiments that examine how Type A and Type B people respond to achievement tasks, the single best way to motivate a Type A person is

to set up a situation of competition.

Most of the early failure to uncover a significant relationship between Type A behavior and heart disease using self-report inventories occurred because

Type A is a collection of several behavioral tendencies only on of which may cause health problems.

Shy people often stumble over their words, feel awkward, and show outward signs of

nervousness.

Which of the following statements is true about social anxiety?

socially anxious people recognize the source of their anxiety, social anxiety can result from anticipated social interactions, and we can identify a relatively stable tendency for people to experience social anxiety.

In a study in which participants were asked to engage in a five minute "get acquainted" conversation, researchers found that

shy people attempted to minimize the amount of evaluation by the other person.

Lisa frequently experiences nervousness in her job and can become angry when the pressures of her work increase. Which dimension of emotion is illustrated by Lisa's behavior at work?

Negative affect

Which of the following has been demonstrated by research on emotional affectivity?

Negative affect is related to psychological stress.

Emotional expressiveness refers to a person's _________ of emotions.

outward display

Which of the following is true about emotional expressiveness?

The more expressive of emotions, the fewer problems in romantic relationships, highly expressive people tend to have higher self-esteem, and women tend to be more expressive than men.

Research found that women going through surgery for breast cancer experienced less _______________ during the year following surgery if they were optimistic rather than pessimistic individuals.

distress.

Which of the following is a reason why defensive pessimists deliberately take a pessimistic approach?

to prepare themselves for failure.

When defensive pessimists are allowed to worry about an upcoming test, they ______ than people not allowed to worry.

felt better

Psychologists draw a distinction between approach goals and avoidance goals

because people are not only motivated to succeed but also to not fail.

What can be done for people at risk for heart disease due to high levels of hostility?

Provide programs designed to reduce anger responses and replace them with relaxation.

Which of the following is a possible reason for the relationship between social activity and positive affect?

Social activity causes positive affect, people with high positive affect tend to make friends, and people engage in social activity because of positive affect.

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