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What literacy form did Petrarch perfect?

Italian sonnet

What was the Florentine bankers' most important invention?

Europe's first single currency, the gold florin

Which of the following Gothic churches features the highest ratio of glass to stone

the royal chapel of Sainte-chapelle

Which of the following dynasties included the Mongols under Kublai Khan and his descendants

the Yuan dynasty

Which of the following terms literally means "the way of the warrior" and refers to the samurai's code of conduct?

bushido

Who is the autor of the "Divine Comedy"?

Dante Alighieri

Who serves as Dantes guide through Paradise?

Beatrice

Among the Yoruba people, the king's head was considered sacred. Which of the following terms refers to his crown that symbolizes his majesty and authority?

ade

Swahili is an African language combine with what other language?

Arabic

Which of the following Mesoamerican cultures depended on an elaborate calendar system that included a 260-day calendar as well as a 365-day calendar?

the Mayan culture

Which of the following provides a startling description of Florence during an outbreak of the plague?

the Decameron

Which of the following is considered the chief purpose of the stained-glass programs in all Gothic cathedrals?

to tell the stories of the Bible

Which of the following is NOT considered an essential characteristic of the typical Gothic cathedral?

stone crypts

Who won the competition to create a dome for Florence Cathedral?

Filippo Brunelleschi

Why were the Medici the most powerful family in Florence from 1418-1494?

they were the bakers to the papacy

Where is Leonardo da Vinci's "The Last Supper"?

in a monastery refectory

What distinction does Donatello's David hold?

the first life-size freestanding male nude since antiquity

What principe did Brunelleschi master and apply to his dome's design?

Scientific perspective

Which of the following artist did the city of Florence commission to create a freestanding stature of the Biblical hero using a huge cracked block of marble that all other sculptors had abandoned?

Michelangelo

Who wrote "Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Architects, and Sculptors"?

Giorgio Vasari

Why did Michelangalo present Mary in his Pieta as young and beautiful instead of middle ages?

to make her a timeless image of purity and chastity

Why did Bramante apply the Vitruvian circle inscribed with a square to his church design of Saint Peter's?

to symbolize the perfection of God

Which of the following is not one of the four major areas of humanist learning Raphael painted on the Vatican's "Stanze della Segnatura"?

Mathematics

Why did Niccolo Machiavelli study as inspiration for "The Prince"?

Roman rulers and citizens

On what earlier work did Ludovico Ariosto base his romantic epic, "Orlando Furioso?"

The Song of Roland

Why did Bruges become the financial capital of the North?

It was home to the Medici banking interests in the region

In the "Ghent Alterpiece", Jan van Eyck's depiction of Adam and Eve hold what distinction?

the largest painted nudes since antiquity

Hieronymus Bosh's famous triptych, the Garden of Earthly Delights, seems intended for what purpose?

to be a conversation piece

In his landscape study "The Large Turt" Alberecht Durer was able to blend his Northern interest in minute detail with what Italian Renaissance interest?

the phenomenon of the natural world

Who is reflected in the mirror in Jan van Eyck's double portrait Giocanni Arnolfini and his wife Giovanna Cenami?

Jan van Eyck

Why did Luther reject the Church's doctrine that good deeds and work lead to salvation?

He believed that faith alone would provide salvation

Why did the Church excommunicate Luther in 1521?

Heresy

Under John Calvin, people were forbidden to do many things, such as dance, single, gamble, etc. What did his followers become known as because of this?

Puritans

What was the first major work Gutenberg published using the printing press?

"The Forty-Two Line Bible"

Why did many Nothern artist turn to painting portraits and landscapes?

Religious imagery was being questioned

What about the Aztec capital Tenochtitan surprised Cortes?

its sophistication

Why did the Benin equate their sacred mudfish with the Portuguese?

Both could swim and walk on land

Who led the Spanish expedition to conquered the Inca Empire in Peru in 1533 with an army of only 180 me?

Francisco Pizarro

Why did Shan Jahan construct the Taj Mahal?

to serve as his favorite wife's tomb

Why is Zhu Di's palace complex known as the Forbidden city?

Only those on official business could enter it.

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