problem and opportunities
informaiton required to answer decsion problem
problems are depicted on a?
research design depends on?
nature of problem
cost and time
three types of research design?
quanititative, cause and effect
quantitative, who what where when how
qualitative, why-insights feelings emotions
research steps for secondary info? 5
choose research design
sample and collect data
step 3 exploratory?
>interviews, focus groups, case studies of groups or individuals
-chosing numbers depends on the problem, target audience, time and cost
1) nominal, delphi, leaderless discussion
2) focus group discussion led by moderator with 8-12 homogenous people
step 3 descriptive?
>survey, secondary data
4) sequence and layout
1) question format- structure/ disguise
2) question wording- simple,
3) question content- one of more? required?
4) sequence and layout- easy first, sensitive last, general to specific
types of surveys? 5
influences on survey types? 4
measurement and scaling impacts on?
step 4 causal and descriptive? 3
>statistical techiniques to investigate relationship between:
2+ catagorical variables
2+ scale variables
1+ scale independent and 1+ scale dependant
sequential variables that follow numerical order
variables with no numerical relationship
2+ categorical variables tool? 2C CT
2+ scale variables tool? 2S C
1+ scale independent and 1+ scale dependent tool? 1S1C R
cross tab? frequency count
-combined frequency count
-calc %s in direction of the IV
-look for large %s along diagonal <50%
statistical test of the relationship between variables
-sig <.05 relationship exists
correlation? linear relationship
-looks for linear relationship
-<.05 shows shows 2 variables related
-pearsons indicated strength of relationship (ignore negatives) 1=perfect linearity, 0=random
-infer cause and effect e.g. draw causal diagram
regression? linear of IV and DV
-looks for linear relationship
-<.05 shows relationship between IV and DV
-regression equation to predict DV's for varying IV's
-RSQ=variance in the DV explained by the IV's
-backward regression=determine optimal V's to explain varience in DV
cross tab relationship exists when?
significance is <.05
if a relationship exists the null hypothesis is?
conjoint analyse variables?
scale dependent vairable and 1 or more independent variables that are levels (0 or 1)
0 or 1 e.g high or low
total of all available options in terms their attribute levels e.g 0,1,1
attribute dollar value?
price customers would be prepared to pay
- (price level difference/ Price B) x Attributes B
assigning numbers/symbols to object according to pre-specified, uniform rules that do not change
creating a continuum where objects are located
types of scales? NOIR
comparative scales? constant, rank order, pairing CRO
-ordinal or rank properties
e.g. constant sum, rank order, paired comparison
noncomparative scales? likert, semantic, stapel LSL
-interval or ratio scaled
e.g. continuous/itemized rating scale- likert, semantic, stapel
numbers serve as labels for classifying
-mutually exclusive e.g male=1 female=2
-based on frequency counts
categorises the variables in meaningful way
-based on centile statistics
measures distance between any two points on scale
-random start and measurement
-based on additional statistical techniques
all properties of NOI
-has absolute zero
-all statistical techniques
assigning a figure of importance to each attribute to total 100
agreement or disagreement to a statement about the stimulus
oxymoronic words on a scale
intensity and direction relating to a stimuli aspect
issues with noncomparative scales?
are you measuring what you set out to measure
consistent measures across time and items
-internal consistency- highly correlated
-stability- same results over time
reliability x validity
generalisation over all situations
validity and reliability?
1) V = R - no random/ systematic error
2) unR # V
3) R #/= V due to systematic error
4) R is neccessary but not sufficient condition for V
survey design? I M Q S W SL
1) info needed- exploratory research to gain insight- who? where? how?
-consider target market
-that overcome unwillingnes to respond
-avoid double barrelled questions
-link to research
4) structure-open vs close ended, structured
5) wording-simple, appropriate length, non leading
6) sequence and layout- gernal to specific, senstive questions later
overcoming unwillingness to respond?
disguise e.g. phrasing in third person, using innocuous questions
factors affecting survey method?
question form & content
double barrelled question?
two or more questions combined into one
-always break into two questions
inability to answer?
-uncertainty- provide alternatives
-avoid generalisations and estimates
open ended questions?
no reponses given- survey intros, to many possibilities, precision is important
-ad: no influence, wide range responses
-disad: time consuming, variability of depth and response, requires interpretation, recording precision difficult
closed ended questions?
list or rating scale alternative responses provided
-ad: les potential error, comparable responses, easy answers for interviewer
-disad: meaningless results, limited self expression, reponse creation (bias/limitation)
structure and disguise?
1) SUD: do you..oxymoronic?
2) SD: do you..alternatives?
3) UUD: do you?
4) UD: projective techniques
-associaiton, completion, construction, expressive
personal tests on sample of target population