research steps for secondary info? 5
choose research design
sample and collect data
step 3 exploratory?
>interviews, focus groups, case studies of groups or individuals
-chosing numbers depends on the problem, target audience, time and cost
1) nominal, delphi, leaderless discussion
2) focus group discussion led by moderator with 8-12 homogenous people
step 3 descriptive?
>survey, secondary data
4) sequence and layout
1) question format- structure/ disguise
2) question wording- simple,
3) question content- one of more? required?
4) sequence and layout- easy first, sensitive last, general to specific
step 4 causal and descriptive? 3
>statistical techiniques to investigate relationship between:
2+ catagorical variables
2+ scale variables
1+ scale independent and 1+ scale dependant
cross tab? frequency count
-combined frequency count
-calc %s in direction of the IV
-look for large %s along diagonal <50%
correlation? linear relationship
-looks for linear relationship
-<.05 shows shows 2 variables related
-pearsons indicated strength of relationship (ignore negatives) 1=perfect linearity, 0=random
-infer cause and effect e.g. draw causal diagram
regression? linear of IV and DV
-looks for linear relationship
-<.05 shows relationship between IV and DV
-regression equation to predict DV's for varying IV's
-RSQ=variance in the DV explained by the IV's
-backward regression=determine optimal V's to explain varience in DV
conjoint analyse variables?
scale dependent vairable and 1 or more independent variables that are levels (0 or 1)
attribute dollar value?
price customers would be prepared to pay
- (price level difference/ Price B) x Attributes B
assigning numbers/symbols to object according to pre-specified, uniform rules that do not change
comparative scales? constant, rank order, pairing CRO
-ordinal or rank properties
e.g. constant sum, rank order, paired comparison
noncomparative scales? likert, semantic, stapel LSL
-interval or ratio scaled
e.g. continuous/itemized rating scale- likert, semantic, stapel
numbers serve as labels for classifying
-mutually exclusive e.g male=1 female=2
-based on frequency counts
measures distance between any two points on scale
-random start and measurement
-based on additional statistical techniques
consistent measures across time and items
-internal consistency- highly correlated
-stability- same results over time
validity and reliability?
1) V = R - no random/ systematic error
2) unR # V
3) R #/= V due to systematic error
4) R is neccessary but not sufficient condition for V
survey design? I M Q S W SL
1) info needed- exploratory research to gain insight- who? where? how?
-consider target market
-that overcome unwillingnes to respond
-avoid double barrelled questions
-link to research
4) structure-open vs close ended, structured
5) wording-simple, appropriate length, non leading
6) sequence and layout- gernal to specific, senstive questions later
overcoming unwillingness to respond?
disguise e.g. phrasing in third person, using innocuous questions
factors affecting survey method?
question form & content
open ended questions?
no reponses given- survey intros, to many possibilities, precision is important
-ad: no influence, wide range responses
-disad: time consuming, variability of depth and response, requires interpretation, recording precision difficult
closed ended questions?
list or rating scale alternative responses provided
-ad: les potential error, comparable responses, easy answers for interviewer
-disad: meaningless results, limited self expression, reponse creation (bias/limitation)
structure and disguise?
1) SUD: do you..oxymoronic?
2) SD: do you..alternatives?
3) UUD: do you?
4) UD: projective techniques
-associaiton, completion, construction, expressive