What is the basic definition of a plant?
- Cell walls!
- Storage material is starch!
- Bodies made of three organ types!
- Haplodiplontic life cycle!
• Two multicellular stages!
- They have tissues which develop from apical
Which plants have homeospores?
Producing a single type of sporangium, which in turn produces a single type of spore. Gametophytes of homosporous plants may be bisexual, with both male and female gametangia, as in ferns, or unisexual, as in most mosses.
Homosporous plants include liverworts, mosses, hornworts, Lycopodium, most of Pterophyta, and horsetails.
Which plants have heterospores?
Producing two morphologically distinct types of sporangia (megasporangia and microsporangia) that produce two distinct types of spores (megaspores and microspores), which develProducing two morphologically distinct types of sporangia (megasporangia and microsporangia) that produce two distinct types of spores (megaspores and microspores), which develop into separate male and female gametophytes (i.e., unisexual gametophytes).
Heterosporous plants include heterosporous ferns, "gymnosperms," and flowering plants.op into separate male and female gametophytes
Which plants have vascular tissues?
All flowering and seed bearing, fruit bearing plants,angiosperms have vascular tissue .
All gymnosperms / conifers have vascular tissue .
Which plants have seeds?
All of them except Pterophytes
Which plants have cones?
Which plants have flowers?
What are the major trends seen in the evolution of the land plants?
- True organs
-Dependency on water
-size and complexity
What are the challenges of dry land that these plants encountered during their evolution?
Transport tissues - Xylem and Phloem
Describe in detail the haplodiplontic life cycle.
In sporic meiosis (also commonly known as intermediary meiosis), the zygote divides mitotically to produce a multicellular diploid "sporophyte".
The sporophyte creates spores via meiosis which also then divide mitotically producing haploid individuals called "gametophytes".
Gametophytes now produce gametes via mitosis. In many plants the gametophyte is not only small-sized but also short-lived.
In the whole cycle, gametes are usually the only haploid cells, and mitosis usually occurs only in the diploid phase.
What are the dominant stages of each plant phylum?
Byrophyte - Gametophyte is the dominant stage
Pterophyte - dominant plant phase is the sporophyte
Gymnosperm - sporophyte is dominant
Angiosperm- sporophyte as dominant stage.
Describe the structure of both the sporophyte and gametophyte of Byrophyta
Perrenial gametophyte - apical meristem
Dioecious gametophytes - male and female
gametophyte - no xylem or phloem
sporophyte - dependant on gametophyte
Compare and contrast the seeds of the gymnosperms and angiosperms
Gymnosperms have seeds that are unprotected by an ovary or fruit. The word is greek and means Naked Seed. Conifers, cycads and ginko biloba trees are gymnosperms. Angiosperms are the opposite and pretty much covers everything else, such as herbaceous plants, shrubs, grasses and most trees.
Compare and contrast the structure of monocots and dicots.
Monocot - x3 Peta;s
Dicot - x4/x5 Petals
Three Major Groups
• Bryophyta - mosses!
- Seedless vascular plants!
• Pterophyta - ferns!
- Seed plants!
• Coniferophyta - conifers!
• Anthophyta - flowering plants
Which plants do not have vascular tissue?
Mosses and liverworts have no vascular tissue which can be compared with vascular tissue of the plants mentioned above So these are called 'Non-Vascular plants.'
Algae and Fungi have no vascular tissue at all
Homeosporous vs Heterosporous
The principal difference between homospory and heterospory is the separation of sexes at different points in the life cycle. Nevertheless, the evolutionary implications of this difference are profound.
For example, seed plants, which have female gametes in ovules and male gametes in pollen grains, must show some differentiation of male and female gametophytes.
Furthermore, an earlier (in the life cycle) separation of the sexes can be regarded as a division of labor, a common theme of evolutionary advancement. It may also be that heterospory promotes outcrossing among plants, since microspores may drift farther from the sporophyte than megaspores.
Describe the structure of both the sporophyte and gametophyte of Pterophyta
-small and photosynthetic
Hormonal sex determination
- hermaphroditic gametophyte
Describe the structure of both the sporophyte and gametophyte of Anthophyta
Two major groups of sporophytes
- monocots and dicots
-- embryos, leaf venation and stem vascular tissue
Sporangia contained in a flower
- Stamen - microsporangia (male) - coat/2 sperm cells
- Carpel - megasportangia (female) - no archegonia/egg
Describe the structure of both the sporophyte and gametophyte of Coniferophyta
- Pollen cone - microsporangia
-Ovulate cone - megasporangia
Sporophyte - long lived
Megagametophyte - dependant/nutrition source
Microgametophyte - coat/2 sperm cells
The Seed plants
Heterosporous spore production
- very small/dependant
Ovule develops in the seed - fertilization
Pollen grain - carries sperm
Sporophyte Dominant - long lived/mostly perrennial
Three tissue types
Three cell types
Three tissue types
Ground - Connective
Dermal - Epithelium
Vascular - Unique
3 cell types of Ground Tissue
2 cell types of Vascular Tissue
Xylem - Transports minerals and Water
Phloem - Tranports Sugars and foods
produces spores by meiosis.
- Grow from zygote
produces male or female gametes (or both) by mitosis
-grow from spores
-never have vascular tissue
-Gametangia -- archegonia (female) and Antheridia (male)
angiosperms where the female gametophyte (embryo sac) is known as a megagametophyte and the male gametophyte (pollen) is called a microgametophyte.